3D Bio printing is an additive manufacturing processing technique that incorporates bio materials such as cells and growth factors to build tissues that resemble natural tissue-like structures.
In order to build these structures layer by layer, the process uses a material called bioink. The technique applies significantly in the medical and biotechnological fields. Recently, the technology has also made advances in the manufacture and regeneration of the cartilage tissue.
It is essential to sustain sterile printing conditions in order to maximise cell growth and to accomplish a print resolution sufficient to the proper cell matrix structure. In complex tissues, this ensures precision, necessary cell to cell distance and correct efficiency.
3D Bio printing is of the utmost importance because of the cell-like structures that simulate the micro and macro-environment of human tissues and organisms. In drug testing and clinical trials, this is important, with the potential to dramatically decrease animal testing requirements.
This new technology creates other huge opportunities because living tissue and organ are not came from humans. Testing for diseases with artificially affected tissues is an example.
The method could also end organ-donation and transplantation-related headaches. In addition to the lack of available bodies, the whole procedure is questioned from a legal and ethical point of view.
3D Bio Printing
The biomedical industry now accounts for 11% of the Additive Manufacturing market share and this will be a major force for Additive Manufacturing 3D Bio Printing growth and development. The interests in 3D printing to manufacture strong tissues (bones, teeth, ligaments) and soft tissues (organs, skin, as well as others) has been growing since the early 2000s.
The production of prosthetic limbs and membranes with complicated geometries is particularly significant for gene therapy, where such a porous membrane is implanted in the patient to serve as a framework for tissue to regenerate while the implant slowly degrades within the body. For the patient ‘s lifespan other devices must stay in place. 3D printing enables the quick fabrication of custom prosthetics and controlled architecture implants.
What is Bio printing?
Polymers used in the fabrication of tissues and organs must have specific functions to (1) enables cell attachment and migration, (2) follow growth factors and waste products, (3) retain their form even though cells grow and (4) preserve appropriate mechanical properties.
How does 3D Bio printing Work?
The structure can be translated into STL file formats by x-ray, MRI, and CT pictures. The STL file can be machine interpreted and a specification focused on the individual needs of the patient can be created. Metals are widely used for bone repair prosthetics. The ABS and PLA polymers used in the production of scaffolds are more appropriate. Interestingly, medical materials should allow cell adhesion, growth and differentiation.
3D Bio printing Materials
Present feedstocks for biomaterials are limited to human tissue, which has strong resistance to and heavily hydrogenated collagen, gelatin, fibrin and chitosan. Such soft natural polymers face the biggest obstacle of their poor mechanical ability. In the field of biomedical engineering, the main focus has been on developing biopolymer materials to avoid implant rejection and health effects for tissue and scaffold generations with increased flexibility, strength and patient functionality. Many polymers – based mixtures contain patient-isolated living cells, which are developed in the laboratory. Such polymers are also called as hydrogels suitable for 3D inkjet printing technology.
1. 3D Bio Printing Techniques: Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM)
Poly Lactic Acids (PLA)
Poly Caprolactone Co Lactide Acid (PCLA)
Poly Lactic Co Glycolic Acid (PLGA)
Biodegradable Scaffolds – By adding Hyaluronic Acid (HA) as a filler to improve cell adhesion and mechanical properties
2. 3D Bio Printing Techniques: Inkjet
Poly Ethylene Glycol (PEG)
Biodegradable Scaffolds – Could indeed attach cells and fillers to enhance cell adhesion and mechanical properties
3. 3D Printing Techniques: Selective Laser Sintering (SLS)
Biodegradable Scaffolds – Enhance mechanical properties
3D Bio printing Organs
Implants, prosthetic limbs, dental, dentofacial orthopaedics, hearing aids, and drug-release tissues are a few examples of modern biomedical tools produced through 3D printing.