3D Bio Printing
The biomedical industry now accounts for 11% of the Additive Manufacturing market share and this will be a major force for Additive Manufacturing 3D Bio Printing growth and development. The interests in 3D printing to manufacture strong tissues (bones, teeth, ligaments) and soft tissues (organs, skin, as well as others) have been growing since the early 2000s. The production of prosthetic limbs and membranes with complicated geometries is particularly significant for gene therapy, where such a porous membrane is implanted in the patient to serve as a framework for tissue to regenerate while the implant slowly degrades with in body. For the patient ‘s lifespan other devices must stay in place. 3D printing enables the quick fabrication of custom prosthetics and controlled architecture implants.
What is Bioprinting
Polymers used in the fabrication of tissues and organs must have specific functions to (1) enable cell attachment and migration, (2) follow growth factors and waste products, (3) retain their form even though cells grow and (4) preserve appropriate mechanical properties.
How does 3D Bioprinting Work
The structure can be translated into STL file formats by x-ray, MRI, and CT pictures. The STL file can be machine interpreted and a specification focused on the individual needs of the patient can be created. Metals are widely used for bone repair prosthetics. The ABS and PLA polymers used in the production of scaffolds are more appropriate. Interestingly, medical materials should allow cell adhesion, growth and differentiation.
3D Bioprinting Materials
Present feedstocks for biomaterials are limited to human tissue, which has strong resistance to and heavily hydrogenated collagen , gelatin, fibrin and chitosan. Such soft natural polymers face the biggest obstacle of their poor mechanical ability. In the field of biomedical engineering, the main focus has been on developing biopolymer materials to avoid implant rejection and health effects for tissue and scaffold generations with increased flexibility , strength and patient functionality. Many polymer – based mixtures contain patient-isolated living cells which are developed in the laboratory. Such polymers are also called as hydrogels suitable for 3D inkjet printing technology.
1. 3D Printing Techniques: Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM)
Poly Lactic Acids (PLA)
Poly Caprolactone co Lactide Acid (PCLA)
Poly Lactic co Glycolic Acid (PLGA)
Biodegradable Scaffolds – By adding Hyaluronic Acid (HA) as a filler to improve cell adhesion and mechanical properties
2. 3D Printing Techniques: Inkjet
Poly Ethylene Glycol (PEG)
Biodegradable Scaffolds – Could indeed attach cells and fillers to enhance cell adhesion and mechanical properties
3. 3D Printing Techniques: Selective Laser Sintering (SLS)
Biodegradable Scaffolds – Enhance mechanical properties
3D Bioprinting Organs
Implants, prosthetic limbs, dental, dentofacial orthopaedics, hearing aids, and drug-release tissues are a few examples of modern biomedical tools produced through 3D printing.