Basically, a belt conveyor system is made up of a continuous belt of durable material that is linked between two flat pulleys and is moved by spinning one of the pulleys with an electric motor attached to it.
Usually, the opposite end pulley (driven pulley) feeds the material onto the belt. With its self-weight as well as its pay load, the moving belt that transports the material towards the driver pulley would most likely sagging between the two end pulleys.
As a result, a number of rollers, referred to as idlers, are used to support the belt on both the carrying and the return sides of the conveyor. The belt is susceptible to elongation since it is always under stress, causing it to hang loose over the pulleys and causing it to lose tension and power. Because of this, the system includes some kind of mechanism for tightening the belt. The take up arrangement is the name given to this tensioning mechanism. The system is, by its very nature, extremely simple.
A number of excellent characteristics of belt conveyors, such as their economy and safety of operation, their dependability, and their ability to perform virtually any processing function while maintaining a continuous flow of material between operations, have helped them to achieve a dominant position in bulk material transportation. When compared to other modes of transportation, belt conveyors have significant advantages in terms of labour and energy needs. Belt conveyors’ dependability has been proven over decades and in a wide range of industrial applications.
When compared to other modes of transportation, belt conveyors have a lower environmental impact. They do not contaminate the air or cause deafening noise in the surrounding area. Belt conveyors are capable of carrying a broad range of commodities at a pace that is far in excess of any practical need. Belt conveyors have the ability to transport goods over long distances and across a wide range of terrains, including rough terrain.
Essential components of a belt conveyor:
Belt conveyors consists of a driving pulley at the head end, and take up pulley at the tail end, both being accommodated in a steel frame. An endless belt connects the two pulleys on both runs and supported by suitable roller type supports, called the idlers. At the upper side of the conveyor also called the carrying side, because the pay load is carried on this side, the belt is supported by idler.
At the other side also called the return side because usually there is no pay load, the belt is supported by idlers. In some designs the belt is supported by a stationery runway instead of idlers. In some special installations both the upper and lower sides transport loads (usually unit load) simultaneously in opposite directions. The driving pulley receives its rotation from drive unit.
The material to be transported is put onto the conveyor belt via one or more feed hoppers that are installed above the conveyor belt line and are typically located on the tail end side of the conveyor belt line. The load carried by the moving belt is released into the discharge spout by passing through the driving pulley. By using specific discharge devices, it is possible to arrange for discharge to occur at any point along the conveying route.
A device known as the take up arrangement is connected to the take up pulley on the tail end side of the belt in order to maintain the belt under the utmost strain and prevent the belt from slipping over the pulleys as a result of the belt’s length expansion. Belt cleaning is used to remove material that has adhered to the outside of the belt face. In most cases, it is situated near the driving pulley.
Belt Conveyor design and construction
Belts are made up of one or more layers of different materials. It is usual for belts to have three layers: a top cover, a carcass, and a bottom cover, with the top cover serving as the outermost layer. In certain cases, however, more levels may be required depending on the nature of the items being transported on the conveyor system. The carcass’s primary function is to give strength and form to the conveyor system, and it is often made of woven or metal cloth with a warp and weft pattern.
In belting, the warp is a term that refers to longitudinal cords that determine the running characteristics of the belt owing to the fact that it is responsible for the degree of resistance and flexibility of the belt. In this case, the weft symbolizes the whole set of transversal wires, and it allows the belt to be very resistant to cuts, rips, and impacts while simultaneously being extremely flexible to guarantee that the system does not break easily.
Steel, polyester, nylon, cotton, and aramid are the most often used carcass materials, while the covers are typically made of a variety of rubber or plastic compounds that are determined by the use of the belt. The usage of steel conveyor belts, which have a high strength and improved longevity, is recommended when the conveyor system is transporting large loads. Steel conveyor belts are constructed of steel cords, as opposed to lower-class strength conveyor belts that are constructed of polyester, nylon, and cotton fibers.
The lower the strength of the material utilized or the smaller the capacity of the conveyor system installed, the less energy will be required for operation, while simultaneously improving the product life and boosting productivity. Among the most important components of a conveyor system for ensuring smooth operation is the Drive Arrangement, which is composed of Gear Boxes, Drive Motors, and the related couplings. On top of that, there are a variety of components that may be used or that are required for a well working conveyor system.
Scrapes are used to clean the belt, chutes are used to regulate the discharge direction, and skirts are used to keep the discharge contained on the receiving belt, among other things. Take-up assembly for “tensioning” the belt, as well as Technological Structures such as Stringer, Short Post, Drive Frames, and Pulley Frames, make up the balancing components that combine to form a complete belt conveying system that is fully operational.
Conveyors made of a blue material are used in the food manufacturing sector. This implies that they may be washed, also known as non – greasy, in order to meet with food-handling hygiene regulations.
Application of belt conveyor:
Belt conveyors are employed to convey a great variety of bulk materials and also unit loads along a horizontal or gently inclined paths. Such duties can be performed within the factory shed or in outdoor work. Within the factory shed belt conveyors are also employed to carry articles of light weight in line production from one operation to another. Belt conveyors are used to mechanize material handling operations in foundries to distribute moulding sand, mould cores and cast articles. Belt conveyors are used for carrying coal, ores, and minerals in power plants, mining industries, and metallurgical process plants. For handling food grains and building materials belt conveyors are frequently employed.
Capacities of a belt conveyor system may range from 500 to 5000 m3 / Hr. and more. The distance covered for a belt conveyor system may be as small as 50m (for indoor work) to 5 Km for supplying raw material from mine area.
Belt Conveyor Rollers or Idler Rollers
Conveyor rollers, also known as idler rollers, are a major element of any conveyor system’s operation. It is their job to run along beneath the belt, assisting with material weight support and impact absorption, among other things. Steel and plastic are two of the most used often materials, but which is the best choice for your needs and circumstances?
Steel rollers (especially mild steel and stainless steel) appear to be the most popular option for many businesses that use conveyor systems. Plastic, on the other hand, may be a suitable option in some circumstances.
When choosing whether to use steel or plastic rollers for your belt conveyor system, there are a number of essential variables to consider. These factors include the types of commodities typically handled, the environment in which your belt conveyor system works, the scale of your activities, and the expenses associated with them, among other things.
Transported Materials in Belt Conveyor Rollers
The type of material that your conveyor system carries is an essential consideration when choosing whether to use steel or plastic as a construction material. When the materials are heavy and/or big in size, steel rollers are more effective in withstanding the weight and impact force of the materials. Plastic rollers are better suited to lighter weight materials than steel rollers since they are not as durable as steel.
Corrosive materials, on the other hand, may cause mild steel rollers to wear out and fail prematurely. Because stainless steel and aluminum steel rollers are more corrosion resistant than mild steel, they are a good alternative to mild steel. Plastic rollers are another alternative that is resistant to corrosives.
Environmental Factors when selecting Belt conveyor rollers
Plastic rollers may also be damaged by high-temperature environments (particularly ones found in the desert). Steel rollers are capable of withstanding very high temperatures, both in terms of the working environment and the temperature of the materials carried.
As exposed to high temperatures, plastic exhibits a higher degree of thermal expansion when compared to steel. When utilizing plastic rollers, the working temperature must be carefully examined; otherwise, the rollers may fail due to warping and fail prematurely.
Operational Capacity of Belt Conveyor Roller
The constrained durability and strength of plastic belt conveyor rollers makes them more suitable for smaller conveyor activities, such as those used in the food manufacturing industry. However, many food manufacturing companies are increasingly choosing stainless steel rollers over plastic rollers because of their food-grade standard, as well as the fact that they are corrosion-free and simple to clean.
Steel rollers are preferable for bigger operations, such as those in the mining sector, since they are usually larger in size, have a greater capacity, and have a longer life span than other materials.
Costs of Belt Conveyor roller
When it comes to manufacturing costs, steel rollers are nearly always less expensive than plastic rollers. Steel rollers have been the industry standard for many years in the mining sector, and they are produced in large quantities to take advantage of economies of scale. Over the years, the production process has been continually refined and modified to the point that it is now considered a fine art form.
Plastic rollers are still a relatively new product, and there is still much room for improvement in terms of innovation.
Aspects Design of idler roller
Plastic is a basic material that is not as strong or durable as steel, and as a result, plastic rollers are inherently weaker than steel rollers in terms of strength and durability. Plastic rollers, on the other hand, have the benefit of not inflicting damage to the belt.
Steel rollers are utilized beyond their operational life, resulting in the roller shell being worn through and exposing the side plates. W It’s like a pizza cutting wheel when the side plates are exposed, and the upright edge cuts into and damages the conveyor belt while it’s operating.
Plastic belt conveyors are often softer in texture than rubber conveyor belts. In this case, the plastic rollers are too soft to harm the belt.
The Top 4 Idler in the Belt Conveyor Business
Idlers are installed at various points along the belt conveyor, depending on the function for which they are being used. There is a vast range of idlers available; nevertheless, the four most popular idlers each have their own set of advantages over the others. Some of these advantages include impact absorption, support for both the carry and return sides of the belt, and the ability to keep the belt traveling in the proper direction.
1. Trough Idlers
A trough idler is the most typically recognized type of carry idler. Trough idlers are usually built with 3 to 5 idler rollers and are installed on the conveyor belt’s carry side. The 5 roller idler has a more uniform cross section, which results in a higher net carrying capacity. The 3 roller idler design features a center idler roll as well as wing idlers on each side of the center idler roller.
Using trough idlers has the advantage of ensuring that the load-bearing capacity of the conveyor is consistent over its entire length, which is beneficial in many situations. Material that has reached its maximum capacity at the loading point will not fall off the belt as a result of more equal load distribution.
2. Idlers with a flat return
They are the most frequent kind of idler on the return side of a conveyor, and they are made of single steel that is placed on two drop brackets. Although flat return idlers are most often manufactured with a single roller design, they may also be manufactured with two rollers.
The aim of employing a flat return idler is to provide support for the conveyor belt from the return side in order to avoid stretching, sagging, and failure of the belt, thus increasing the service life of the conveyor belt and reducing maintenance costs.
3. Impact Idlers
When material is being loaded onto the belt, impact idlers are used to prevent belt damage from occurring as a result of the falling material and constant collisions. Impact rollers are designed to absorb impact forces, thus reducing the likelihood of damage to the conveyor belt, idler frame, and surrounding structure.
The primary advantage of employing impact idlers is that they avoid damage to the belt, which is advantageous since belts are expensive to repair and replace. As a result, they contribute to increased production while decreasing maintenance expenses.
4. Training Return Idlers
Training Return Idlers a djust the belt misalignment in order to ensure that the belt tracks properly at the tail end of the conveyor while it is running during operations.
A misaligned belt that drags against a permanent structure such as the head chute or a conveyor component may cause significant damage to the belt and everything else it comes into touch with, including the structure itself. As a result, employing a training return idler helps to minimize belt damage and subsequent maintenance costs for the belt, structure, and components.
Types of Idler Rollers
Idler rollers, or more often referred to as conveyor rollers, are cylindrical-shaped bars that travel alongside and under the surface of a belt conveyor. Idler rollers are available in a variety of configurations and with a variety of purposes.
Idler rollers are often used to assist in the sustaining of the weight and impact of the items being carried down a belt conveyor. Moreover, they contribute to the smooth and continuous flow of the material down the belt conveyor.
Self-aligning idler rollers may aid in the maintenance of belt tracking by assisting in the alignment of the rollers. Depending on the construction and form of the conveyor belt, the rollers are typically positioned inside a metal frame, which is referred to as an idler set, and are connected together.
1. Idler Roller Options That Can Be Customized
Idler rollers may be customized to meet the needs of almost any conveyor application. Bearing brand, bearing size, bearing diameter or bearing series, wall thickness, seal type, and material type are only a few of the factors to consider. Various variables may be chosen and customized to meet the requirements and specifications of your application’s standards and specifications.
Idler rollers are employed in a variety of operations, and some of the variables that influence their selection include the material type, specific gravity of the material, and lump size.
2. Plain Idler Roller
Plain rollers are the most popular type of idler roller used in several applications. Conveyor belt supports and shapes are provided by these devices. Plain rollers may be installed on the load side of a belt in trough, tracking, and transition frames, among other configurations. In addition, they may be installed on the belt’s return side as an option.
3. Tapered Idler Rollers
The tapered idler roller may be placed on either the load or the return side of the belt, depending on the application. In the event that they are placed in a tracking frame, they may help in belt conveyor tracking.
4. Idler Rollers with a Rubber Coating
The term “rubber coating over the idler roller” comes from the rubber that is vulcanized directly to the roller, which gives the roller its rubber coating. The tear, impact, and friction resistance of rubber coated idler rollers makes them more durable than non-coated idler rollers. As a result, they have a longer service life.
5. Idler Rollers with a Rubber Disc
A idler roller with rubber disk is comprised of resilient rubber discs that are spaced at regular intervals throughout the length of the roller. Rubber discs are packed together on the two ends of the roller to give additional support for the conveyor belt edge on both ends of the roller.
The rubber disks are placed in a dispersed manner in order to separate any carry-backs (leftover materials adhered to the belt after a scraper has performed its cleaning function). This aids in reducing material build-up on the exterior of the roller, which is a frequent cause of belt mistracking and belt sticking on obstacles.
6. Rubber Screw Idler Rollers
Rubber screw idler rollers have an anti-tear rubber covering applied in a continuous screw pattern throughout the roller’s length to prevent wear and tear. The screw design aids in the removal of material build-up on the belt as well as the maintenance of belt trackability and tracking accuracy.
7. Screw Idler Rollers made of steel
These rollers are similar in appearance to rubber screw idler rollers, with the same continuous screw-patterned covering running the whole length of the roller. However, steel is used as a component rather than rubber in this case.
The screw design aids in the removal of material build-up on the belt as well as the maintenance of belt trackability and tracking accuracy. Due to the fact that steel screws scrub more effectively than rubber screws, steel screw idler rollers are more efficient in situations when there is a lot of carry back.
A mobile plant conveyor, for example, is an example of an application where a steel screw idler may be useful since scrapers cannot be utilized to clean the belt. It is not feasible to install a scraper on a mobile plant conveyor because there is insufficient space. Another example is a folding conveyor, which may make it impossible to attach such devices to the conveyor.