Belt Conveyor Parts | An Ultimate Guide To Learn Belt Fabrics | 6 Types of Belt Cover Grades Can Make Your Life Easier | Belt Splicing | Designation Of Belts

Belt Conveyor parts:

Contents

The belt conveyor parts are explained below in this article. The belt support, the pulley, and the driving unit are the three major parts of belt conveyor. Each component is critical to the functioning of the conveyor unit and must be carefully selected. Despite the fact that all conveyor systems include these components, designs differ in terms of the materials used in construction and the location of each component.

The desirable properties of an ideal belt material are:

  • High Strength,
  • Low self weight,
  • Small specific elongation,
  • High Flexibility,
  • High resistivity to ply separation
  • Low hygroscopic
  • Long service life

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What is a Conveyor System, and how does it work?

Loading and unloading conveyor systems are a kind of mechanical handling equipment used to transport materials from one location to another. Conveyors make it simple to move large or bulky items, which is particularly useful in applications such as material transportation.

Materials are transported quickly and efficiently using conveyor systems, which are available in a number of configurations. These are very useful in situations where there is a requirement to handle materials and move packing items on a consistent basis. It is common to see these at supermarkets and airports, and they often have user oriented transport applications.

Nowadays, there is a diverse range of conveying systems accessible to see and use, each tailored to the specific requirements of various sectors. Belt conveyors and chain conveyors are the most popular types of conveyors used in industrial settings. So let us have a look at the most important components of the conveyor system.

Belt Conveyor Parts

Belt Conveyors are made up of three components, which are as follows:

  1. The belt as a support
  2. The pulley system
  3. The driving unit

1. The Belt as a Support

When it comes to conveyor systems, belt support is a component that enables the belt to travel smoothly and without any limitations.

It is possible for the belt to fail if the support unit is not solid, especially if a large item is placed on top of it. As a result, the belt will not travel as smoothly or as quickly as it should. The employment of support units helps to ensure that the belt stays tight and travels effectively.

2. Pulley System

The belt speed is controlled by this external component, which is called the pulley system. Each unit is equipped with two pulleys, one of which is powered by electricity and the other which is not. Furthermore, contemporary conveyor systems may have additional rotors across the whole frame.

3. The driving Unit

The drive unit is responsible for moving or operating the conveyor system. It is equipped with a counter bearing, which efficiently holds the moving components in place. For certain systems, it also allows for the movement of the belt in the opposite direction as well as the management of the frequent changes in the direction.

Conveyor System Types

There are many different types of conveyor systems and the Conveyor systems are classified into the following categories:

  1. Ball transfer conveyor
  2. Baggage conveyor
  3. Belt conveyor
  4. Bucket conveyor
  5. Chain conveyor
  6. Coal mine conveyor
  7. Chute conveyor
  8. Magnetic conveyor
  9. Overhead conveyor
  10. Pneumatic or vacuum conveyor
  11. Powered roller conveyor
  12. Roller conveyor
  13. Screw or Auger conveyor
  14. Slat or apron conveyor
  15. Vertical conveyor
  16. Vibrating conveyor
  17. Wheel conveyor

1. Ball Transfer Conveyor

Ball transfer conveyors are made up of a number of ball rollers that enable the product to be transported in many directions at the same time. At packaging and assembly lines, when the product must be moved in more than one direction, they are used.

The usage of several conveyor lines in conjunction with one another is used to transfer goods from one location to another. This conveyor is capable of accommodating a variety of different sizes and load carrying capabilities. Ball transfer conveyors are not self-driven, and additional forces are required to move the product down the conveyor.

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2. Baggage Conveyor

In bagging handling systems, these kinds of conveyors are utilized to move the bags from one location to another. It is likely that if you have gone to an airport, you are familiar with the fact that there are baggage claims where you may store your belongings.

You place your belongings on one side of the luggage conveyor, and they are collected on the other side once they have been checked. This causes the bags to travel in a circle. A conveyor belt is more likely to be seen at a shop or at an airport, among other places.

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3. Belt conveyor.

In transportation, a belt conveyor seems to be a carrying material that transports goods in a straight line or across changes in height or direction by use of a continuous belt. A conveyor belt is made up of two end pulleys that are looped over a lengthy stretch of thick material that is both strong and long-lasting.

The belt travels between the two as the motor in the pulley spins at the same speed and in the same direction as the belt goes between the two. For further support when carrying large or bulky goods or when transporting them over long distances, rollers may be placed on the sides of the conveyor belt to provide additional support.

A belt conveyor is the cheapest kind of conveyor, as well as the most straightforward to build and operate. It is used to transport bulk commodities such as grain, ore, coal, sand, and other similar items.

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4. Bucket conveyor

A bucket conveyor is also referred to as a grain leg in certain circles. There are many types of conveyors that may be used to transport flowable bulk material vertically in an assembly line. It transports goods or commodities by use of multi-sided containers that are linked by cables, belts, or chains.

These conveyors are composed of an interlinked loop of buckets that stay flat as they travel from a horizontal to a vertical position in order to prevent their items from falling. These conveyors are simple to move, have a large carrying capacity, and need little maintenance. It is used in the food, agricultural, pharmaceutical, chemical, and glass sectors, among others.

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5. Chain Conveyor

An automated chain conveyor is a material handling device that is connected to moving elements (such as a chain or cable) and is usually used to transport goods through manufacturing lines. A chain conveyor is made up of a succession of gears that are linked together to form a continuous system by a chain.

Typically, each gear includes teeth that allow it to rotate freely along the chain while it is being used. In addition to providing great load capacity, chain conveyors offer the capability of moving items that are very broad or lengthy in length. Chain conveyors are mostly used in the movement or transportation of large unit loads.

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6. Coal mine conveyor.

Using these conveyors to carry huge amounts of coal over very long distances is a highly efficient method of transportation. Because of its low power usage, coal conveyor equipment may help you save money on your operating expenses.

Coal conveyors are more efficient than truck or rail systems in traversing steep terrain, and they have the added advantage of providing continuous transportation. It is appropriate for installation for coal handling at an inclination of up to 20° from horizontal, depending on the application.

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7. Chute Conveyor

Chute conveyors are one of the most costly modes of material transportation available. When they transfer the goods from one level to another over smooth surfaces, they rely on gravity to do it. Chute conveyors are used to enhance the amount of space available for shipment.

A spiral chute may be used to transport items between levels while taking up the least amount of space possible. A low coefficient of dynamic friction is achieved via the use of certain materials, which allows the product or material to glide smoothly. It may be used in scrap handling, packing, and postal processing, among other things.

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8. Magnet Conveyor

Ferrous material is moved vertically or in the opposite direction using these kinds of conveyor systems, which feature either a magnetic slider bed or a magnetic pulley as their primary moving components.

Magnets on the bed of this conveyor keep ferrous, or iron-containing components in place, and it should be able to operate on any industrial conveyor system. All of the magnets are properly positioned, resulting in precise magnetic holding power for these components. When ferrous chips are removed from machining centers, magnetic conveyors are utilized to do it.

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9. Overhead Conveyors

An overhead conveyor is made up of a single track that may be operated manually or by a motor. These are utilized in work locations to carry out transporting and loading duties for employees. They are connected to the ceiling with the help of a trolley or carrier that is dragged by chains or cables to the desired location.

Conveyors of this kind are intended to move in a continuous route, and they may shift directions from horizontal to vertical or vice versa. This may allow you to make greater use of your floor space, transport goods in bulk, and send boxes or packing to your customers. The conveyor is mainly used in the inspection and/or processing of assembly line components.

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10. Pneumatic or Vacuum conveyors

Unlike any other dry material transport system, a pneumatic vacuum conveyor is completely dust-free and requires no human intervention. A pneumatic conveyor operates on the premise that bulk goods may be transported via pipes using compressed air.

When this blowing air strikes the bulk material, it creates a propulsive force that propels the material through the conveying line. They need less maintenance and thus provide greater safety as well as reduced leakage and duct leaking. For example, burner feeders, metal powder carriers, and recycling all make use of pneumatic conveyors.

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11. Powered or Live Roller Conveyor

These are the kinds of roller conveyors that transport goods or materials by using motorized rollers to move them. Conveyor rollers are powered by belts, chains, or O-rings, depending on the weight of the material being transported. Their effectiveness in horizontal transportation over vast distances is well documented.

The speed of the conveyor and the process can be readily regulated, and the danger of damage is minimized since the components never come into contact while in operation. They are mostly employed in the food processing, steel manufacturing, and packaging sectors.

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12. Roller Conveyor

Roller conveyors are constructed with parallel rollers that are attached to the frame and are used to transport products by gravity or manually. Such rollers really aren’t self-powered and instead rely on gravity to move the item, or on the user’s physical assistance if they are placed horizontally.

It is possible to install these kinds of conveyors in a straight or curved configuration based on the intended usage and available floor space. Because they are constructed with a range of sensors and technology, they are a highly quick and safe load transportation method. In the loading dock, baggage handling, or on the assembly line, it is utilized in a variety of situations.

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13. Screw or Auger Conveyor

A screw conveyor is a device that moves or transfers fluid or granular material conveniently. It consists of a spinning helical screw blade connected to a uniform tube. Depending on the screw type and rotational orientation, it comprises of a helical screw or steel auger that spins inside a shaft, pushing the workpiece.

In this case, the rate of volume transfer is the same as the rate at which the shaft rotates. Conveyors of this kind are capable of handling huge amounts of material at varying speeds from sluggish to rapid flow. Among the items they transport are food waste, wood chips, cereal grains, animal feed, boiler ash, meat, and bone meal, to name a few examples.

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14. Slat or Apron Conveyor

The slat conveyor transports items from one end of the conveyor to the other by use of a chain-driven loop of slats. A slat conveyor is a system that comprises of a slat and chain system that is used to move components down an assembly line.

The steel panels are linked in series by means of specific chain connectors, and the chain is driven by an electric motor and gearbox, as shown in the illustration. This enables a broad range of heavy-load conveyor applications to be implemented. In the heat drying process, a slat conveyor may transport hot, greasy components or objects through the process.

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15. Vertical Conveyor

A vertical conveyor is a conveying equipment that automatically moves goods from one level to another by using rotary or linear vibration to move the products. They are capable of transporting products from one elevation to another, as well as increasing and decreasing the load in the supply line at different points along the way.

Vertical conveyors are placed between two horizontal conveyors and have the ability to keep the movement steady by using a vertical offset to keep the movement stable. Depending on the application, it may offer a variety of sizes and weight capabilities. Vertical conveyors are utilized in a variety of applications, including shrinking floor area, bundling several floors together, vertical accumulation systems, and many more.

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16. Vibrating Conveyor

When a solid conveying surface is rotated sideways, the result is a trough, which is what a vibrating conveyor is used to transport. They are capable of transferring both static and dynamic forces to the structures that support them, depending on their design.

It is possible to transport materials downhill or horizontally on these conveying devices as well as up to 10 degrees of slope. Vibrating conveyors have smoother surfaces that are easier to clean and need less maintenance than other kinds of conveyors. They are used to transport dry, bulk commodities such as aggregate, gravel, coal, and other similar materials to their final destination.

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17. Wheel Conveyor

An item is transported manually or by gravity on a wheel conveyor, which is supported by a frame and is made up of a succession of wheels. Depending on the weight requirements and application, a certain set of wheels and wheel spacing is used to construct this conveyor.

Wheel conveyors are utilized in a variety of applications such as item or package handling. They are often used for loading and unloading vehicles, as well as for transporting packages, pallets, and other items.

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In general Reinforced Rubber Belts meet these requirements better than any other material.

In general, a conveyor belt consists of three elements:

  • Top cover
  • Carcass
  • Bottom Cover

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Carcass | Belt Conveyor Parts

The carcass is the reinforcing element and takes up the tensile forces necessary in starting and moving the loaded belt, absorbs the impact energy of material during loading. The carcass may be of either textile reinforcement or steel cords. In case of textile reinforcement the carcass is normally built up of a number of plies of textile fabric. These plies may be made from rough woven cotton fabric and are connected by vulcanization with natural or synthetic rubber.

Sometimes the plies are made of extra strong synthetic fabrics like:

  • Capron,
  • Pernol
  • Nylon etc

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The strength of fabric and the number of plies in the carcass of the belt may be varied together to suit the strength requirement. However if the belt is too tough, troughing of the belt and bending it round the terminal pulleys will be very difficult. Therefore the belt with lesser number of plies with stronger fabric is generally preferred because it is more flexible. Steel cord belting is used when good trough ability, small specific elongation and higher operating tensile forces are required. PVC belting is generally selected for underground mining applications where fire hazard exists.

Belts cover grades:

The primary purpose of the covers is to protect the belt carcass against damage and any special deteriorating factors that may be present in the operating environment. Rubber or rubbers like compounds are used for the top and bottom covers of conveying belting. Various chemicals are mixed with these compounds to achieve the desired physical properties necessary for service conditions. The properties needed for the cover of belt include resistance to cutting, gauging, tearing, abrasion, aging, moisture absorptions and in some cases resistance to oil, chemical and heat. Different qualities of cover material are designated by different grades. The cover grade is determined by the characteristics of the material to be handled.

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Some cover grades are:

Grade M24:

Natural rubber compound offering superior resistance to cutting, gauging and abrasion wear

Grade N17:

Compounded rubber with improved flex life for moderately abrasive material, high abrasion resistance, resistance to cutting and gauging is inferior to M24

Grade HR:

Suitable for handling Alumina, ash, chemical etc at temperatures over 65 deg Celsius up to 120 deg Celsius.

Grade ‘Betaplus’:

Recommended for handling materials like foundry sand, cement clinker, coke wharf, sinter ore at temperature range 65 °C to 180° C for coarse and fine materials.

Grade FR:

Suitable for underground mining and for equipment and materials requiring fire resistant and antistatic charge properties.

Grade OR:

Suitable for best possible resistance to mineral, vegetable and animal oil

Designation of Belts:

Belts are designated to denote the full thickness tensile strength per meter width and the number of reinforcing plies of synthetic textile. Examples: 500/3 belt indicates a belt having a minimum guaranteed full thickness tensile strength of 500 KN/m, incorporating 3 plies of textile reinforcement. For all synthetic fabric reinforced conveyor belting usually a factor of safety of 10 is applied to obtain the maximum working tension with vulcanized splicing.

Steel cord belting is designated by the prefix “ST” followed by the minimum full thickness tensile strength in kN/m.

Belt Splicing:

The two ends of a belt are joined directly on the conveyor either by vulcanizing or hinged metal belt fasteners of different designs. Vulcanization is the most reliable method of splicing. Vulcanization technique is a specialized job and expensive, but yields the best result. Mechanical fasteners are often used for connecting flat belting.

FAQ’s

What are the different components of a conveyor belt?

When it comes to conveyor systems, there are three major components: the belt support, the pulley, and the driving unit. Each component is critical to the functioning of the conveyor unit and must be carefully selected. Despite the fact that all conveyor systems include these components, designs differ in terms of the materials used in construction and the location of each component.

What is the operation of a conveyor belt?

A conveyor belt operates by using two motorized pulleys that loop over a lengthy stretch of thick, sturdy material to complete the looping process. Whenever the motors in the pulleys run at the same speed and spin in the same direction, the belt is able to travel back and forth between them.

When it comes to a belt conveyor, which component is directly accountable for the material it transports?

One or both of the pulleys are driven, which causes the belt and the material on the belt to move forward as a result of this. The drive pulley is the one that is driven, while the idler pulley is the one that is not powered.

What kind of motor is used in a conveyor belt?

When it comes to conveyor systems that run constantly in one direction, AC induction motors are the best choice. There is a broad variety of AC motors with power-off triggered electromagnetic brakes available for conveyor systems in which the load should always be kept in place or for vertical applications.

What is the maximum speed of a conveyor belt?

Conveyors move packages at a pace that is comparable to that of a person who carries them. This is approximately 65 feet per minute (or around 3/4 mile per hour).

What exactly does “vulcanizing a belt” imply?

Hot vulcanizing is a technique of belt restoration that involves applying both heat and pressure to repair materials in order to attach them to the damaged portions of the belt. Before beginning, the belt must be well cleaned and clear of any oily or greasy particles.

How can I raise the speed of my conveyor belt?

The capacity of the belt may be enhanced by the following methods:

1. Increasing the breadth of the belts

2. Increasing the pace of the belts

3. Making use of idler geometry with increased capacity.

4. Making use of rubber with low rolling resistance; and

5. Increasing the strength of the belt.

What exactly is cold vulcanization?

A conveyor belt may be repaired using the cold vulcanising technique, which makes use of vulcanized material (chemical agents) such as patches and strips , which induce a chemical reaction to fuse the two belt ends combined.

What is the designation of belts?

V-belts, on the other hand, are specified with a nominal inside length. Each kind of belt segment has a power rating that is specific to it.

What is the definition of belt splicing?

Conveyor belt splicing is the technique of connecting two sections of conveyor belts together in one piece. The majority of the time, this is done in order to either lengthen the original conveyer belt or to repair a ripped or broken conveyor belt.

For high-temperature applications, what grade of belt cover is used?

Ultra heat resistant T3 Grade conveyor belts are intended for controlled high temperature applications. They are suited for continuous service at temperatures up to 180 degrees centigrade on the belt surface and 220 degrees centigrade for the material being transported.

What is the conveyor belt grade M24 designation?

M24 (24MPa) Conveyor Belts are abrasion resistant, as well as being very resistant to cuts and claw marks. Cement, steel, and stone crushing industries, among others, are major users of these materials in mining and process industries.

What kind of material is utilized in the construction of conveyor belts?

Rubber, PVC, Urethane, Neoprene, Nylon, Nitrile, Polyester, leather, and other materials are often used in the production of these belts. The material used to construct industrial conveyor belts is constructed in layers of several layers. The majority of material-transporting belts are constructed of two layers.

When a conveyor belt driving unit fails, what are some of the potential causes?

Uneven idler spacing, seized or worn rollers, a misaligned frame, material accumulation on any section of the conveyor, excessive belt tensioning, and a worn or broken belt are all potential reasons of mistracking, to mention a few of them.

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