Category Archives: Latest Automotive Technology

New Powerful Capacitors | High Energy Storage And Rapid Current Discharge Batteries Technology | New Nano Composite Processing Technique

01-EESTOR-Barium titanate Batteries-advanced battery storing technology-Ultra capacitor technology

A new technique for creating films of barium titanate (BaTiO3) nano particles in a polymer matrix could allow fabrication of improved capacitors able to store twice as much energy as conventional devices. The improved capacitors could be used in consumer devices such as cellular telephones – and in defense applications requiring both high energy storage and rapid current discharge.

This capacitor array device made with a barium titanate nanocomposite.

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Because of its high dielectric properties, barium titanate has long been of interest for use in capacitors, but until recently materials scientists had been unable to produce good dispersion of the material within a polymer matrix. By using tailored organic phosphonic acids to encapsulate and modify the surface of the nano particles, researchers at the Georgia Institute of Technology’s Center for Organic Photonics and Electronics were able to overcome the particle dispersion problem to create uniform nano composites.

For capacitors and related applications, the amount of energy you can store in a material is related to these two factors.

1. High Dielectric Constant

2. High Dielectric breakdown Strength

The new nanocomposite materials have been tested at frequencies of up to one megahertz, and the research says operation at even higher frequencies may be possible. Though the new materials could have commercial application without further improvement, their most important contribution may be in demonstrating the new encapsulation technique – which could have broad applications in other nanocomposite materials.

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This work opens a door to effectively exploit this type of particle in nano composites using the coating technology.

Because of their ability to store and rapidly discharge electrical energy, capacitors are used in a variety of consumer products such as computers and cellular telephones. And because of the increasing demands for electrical energy to power vehicles and new equipment, they also have important military applications.

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Key to developing thin-film capacitor materials with higher energy storage capacity is the ability to uniformly disperse nano particles in as high a density as possible throughout the polymer matrix. However, nano particles such as barium titanate tend to form aggregates that reduce the ability of the nanocomposite to resist electrical breakdown. Other research groups have tried to address the dispersal issue with a variety of surface coatings, but those coatings tended to come off during processing – or to create materials compatibility issues.

The robust Designed coating for the particles, which range in size from 30 to 120 nanometers in diameter.

“Phosphonic acids bind very well to barium titanate and to other related metal oxides”. “The choice of that material and ligands were very effective in allowing us to take the tailored phosphonic acids, put them onto the barium titanate, and then with the correct solution processing, to incorporate them into polymer systems. This allowed us to provide good compatibility with the polymer hosts – and thus very good dispersion as evidenced by a three- to four-fold decrease in the average aggregate size.”

Though large crystals of barium titanate could also provide a high dielectric constant, they generally do not provide adequate resistance to breakdown – and their formation and growth can be complex and require high temperatures. Composites provide the necessary electrical properties, along with the advantages of solution-based processing techniques.

“One of the big benefits of using a polymer nanocomposite approach is that you combine particles of a material that provide desired properties in a matrix that has the benefits of easy processing,”.

Scanning electron micrographs of barium titanate (BaTiO3) nano composites with polycarbonate (left, top and bottom) and Viton (right, top and bottom) polymer matrices. The images show the dramatic improvement in film uniformity through the use of phosphonic acid coated BaTiO3 nano particles (bottom images) as compared to uncoated nano particles (top images). The higher uniformity results in greatly improved dielectric properties.

Though the new materials may already offer enough of an advantage to justify commercializing. The research team also wants to scale up production to make larger samples – now produced in two-inch by three-inch films – available to other researchers who may wish to develop additional applications.

“Beyond capacitors, there are many areas where high dielectric materials are important, such as field-effect transistors, displays and other electronic devices,” Perry added. “With our material, we can provide a high dielectric layer that can be incorporated into those types of applications.”

Super Charger | Super Chargers for Car or Truck | Introduction to Supercharger

Engines combust (burn) fuel and use the energy of that combustion to do work. The more fuel that is combusted in any given time then the more energy is available to carry out the engines task. Fuel requires air (or the oxygen contained within air) to burn so if there isn’t enough air mixed with the fuel it will not burn. This also means that the amount of air entering an engine determines how much fuel can be burnt and consequently how much energy (or power) an engine can produce. Superchargers are essentially an air pump designed to cram extra air into an engine allowing it to combust more fuel than would otherwise be possible.

2011-Mustang-Supercharger

Mercedes pioneered automotive superchargers on their race cars during the 1920’s. These were simple reciprocating compressors attached to the engine by an electrically operated clutch. A switch activated by the accelerator pedal turned the pump on when extra power (full throttle) was required. A flurry of engineering endeavor ensued in order to reign in Mercedes advantage on the racetrack. Within a few short years most of the basic designs for modern superchargers had appeared.

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During the 1930’s superchargers were largely the preserve of marine engines, aircraft and race vehicles but gradually found their way into commercial diesel engines by the 1950’s. It has been common for truck engines to be turbo supercharged (a.k.a. turbocharged) for decades but car engines originally had difficulty in effectively employing this technology.

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Superchargers mostly fall into one of two categories, mechanically driven superchargers and turbo superchargers driven by exhaust gasses. A third category is starting to make an appearance and that is electrically powered superchargers.

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Turbo superchargers (a.k.a. turbochargers or turbo’s) are relatively compact, lightweight and efficient but suffer from turbo lag and heat stress. By turbo lag we mean the amount of time it takes for the turbo’s rotor to speed up to full efficiency. Some of the earliest turbo charged vehicles took so long for the turbo to produce a usable amount of boost that they were all but useless. Modern turbo chargers are much better in this regard but turbo lag is still a problem. Heat is another bane of turbo chargers. Exhaust gasses are extremely hot and can cause so much heat to build up in the turbo that oil will burn and congeal within its galleries leading to a bearing failure. This is why many turbo chargers have a turbo timer. The timer will cause an engine to continue idling for a few minutes after it is switched off allowing excess heat to be dissipated.

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Mechanically driven superchargers usually don’t suffer from turbo lag and can often produce more boost than an exhaust driven charger (turbo). On the negative side they are generally bulky, heavy, and have a cumbersome drive mechanism (usually belt drive). Furthermore most chargers of this type have to supply air at all engine speeds and loads making them difficult to match various engine conditions precisely.

As our supercharger is electrically driven we have devoted an entire article to the advantages and disadvantages of this type.

Heat exchangers (intercoolers) are frequently used in conjunction with superchargers. Compressing air increases its temperature thus making it less dense. By re-cooling the compressed volume of air before it enters, density is increased allowing even more air to be forced into the engine. Intercoolers are more important for turbo superchargers as there are two heating sources present, the act of compression and heat from exhaust gasses both increase air temperature.