Category Archives: Material Science & Metallurgy

Plastics | Types Of Plastics | Classification Of Plastics

What are Plastics?

Plastics are a material that is made up mainly of macromolecules, that can be made fluid by the action of heating and pressurizing, and that can be processed into end products with any useful shape you want to make.

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Classification of Plastics

Plastics can be classified into:

1. Thermoplastics and Thermo sets
2. Amorphous Thermoplastics and Crystalline Thermoplastics
3. Commodity Plastics and Engineering Plastics

Thermoplastics Vs Thermo sets

01-thermo plastics vs thermosets-difference between thermo plastics and thermosets

Thermoplastics Elastomer

• TPE – thermoplastic elastomer
• Resemble rubber at room temperature
• Can be melt-processed like other thermoplastics
• Become elastic like rubber when cooled

Amorphous Thermoplastics Vs. Crystalline Thermoplastics

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 Thermo sets Classifications

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Commodity Plastics Vs Engineering Plastics

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Plastics | Utility Of Plastics | Engineering Plastics

Plastics are excellent materials with unique and very useful properties. You can produce just about anything you can imagine using plastics.

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Characteristics of Plastics

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History Of Plastics:

1. Before Plastics—Age of the Natural Resins

  • Rubber—Tough elastic substance (light cream or dark amber
    colored) from the milky juice (sap) of rubber tree
  • Ebonite—Hard black rubber; natural rubber + sulfur
  • Gutta-Percha—Dark brown substance like natural rubber
  • Shellac—dark-brown material from lac insects

2. Bakelite—The First True Synthetic Plastics

  • Leo Hendrik Baekeland invented Bakelite from coal
  • Bakelite helped make 20th century “The Age of Electricity”

01-Reaction to produce plastics-plastic formation-industrial plastic manufacturing-plastic production methods3. Industrialization of Major Plastics

Year

Type of plastics

Note

1872

Celluloid (Hyatt, USA)

Semi-synthetic

1910

Phenolic resin, “Bakelite” (Baekeland, USA)

From coal

1931

Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) (Rohm and Haas, Ger-many)

From coal

1935

Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) (IG Farben, Germany)

From coal

1935

Polystyrene (IG Farben, Germany)

From oil

1938

Nylon 6 (IG Farben, Germany)

 

1939

Nylon 66 (DuPont, USA)

From coal

1939

High-pressure low-density polyethylene (LDPE) (ICI, Eng-land)

 

1953

Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) (DuPont, USA)

 

1953

Low-pressure high-density polyethylene (HDPE) (Montecatini, Italy)

Ziegler catalyst

1955

Medium-pressure high-density polyethylene (HDPE) (Phillips, USA)

Phillips catalyst

1957

Low-pressure high-density polyethylene (HDPE) (Hoechst, Germany)

Ziegler catalyst

1959

Polypropylene (Montecatini, Italy)

 

1977

Linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE) (UCC, USA)

 

1991

Metallocene very-low-density polyethylene (VLDPE) (Exxon, USA)

Metallocene cata-lyst

4. Concept of High Molecular Weight Compounds & Polymers

  • Herman Staudinger, German chemist, proposed a new theory that several thousands of reactive units bonded together in chains and form giant molecules to make up cellulose and rubber
  • In 1920, Staudinger proposed calling such materials: high molecular weight compounds, macromolecules, or polymers.

5. Nylon—The First Tailor-Made Plastics

  • 1931 – Fiber 66 was produced, later called Nylon 66 in 1938