Category: Solar

Electric Car and Pollution | Carbon Footprint of Electric Cars vs Gasoline

This post addresses the topic of Electric car and Pollution, Carbon Footprint of Electric Cars v’s Gasoline, Low Emission Development Strategies, as well as the Electric Vehicles are good for the environment. Electric motor vehicles are admired, due to no harmed emissions on the path, as an economically sustainable option to fuel driven cars.

electric-vehicles-sustainability-carbon-foot-prints-of-electric-cars-vs-gasoline
electric-vehicles-sustainability-carbon-foot-prints-of-electric-cars-vs-gasoline

 

Electric Car and Pollution

The transport sector is the principal source, since almost one fourth of all greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are emitted in European cities. Emissions have been lowered since 2007, but are nevertheless higher than in 1990. Road transport, in fact, was deemed responsible for more than 70% of the transport GHG pollution in 2014 (where civil aircraft account for 13.1%, ship traffic is 13%, railway traffic is 0.6%, road traffic is 72.8% and the other means of services are 0.5%).

low-emission-development-strategies-carbon-footprint-of-electric-cars-vs-gasoline
low-emission-development-strategies-carbon-footprint-of-electric-cars-vs-gasoline

 

Carbon Footprint of Electric Cars vs Gasoline

The initiatives to be undertaken for the purification of air are:

  • Employ modern technology, introduce competitive rates and promote a push to reduce transport pollution to improve transport network efficiency;
  • Encourage and expedite the radical transition to internal combustion engines and sustainable transport power sources with reduced pollution requirements by use green energies like hydrogen, advanced biofuels and synthetic renewable fuels and electricity;
  • Conversion to reduced- to zero-emission cars will be encouraged.
carbon-footprint-of-electric-cars-vs-gasoline-electric-car-and-pollution
carbon-footprint-of-electric-cars-vs-gasoline-electric-car-and-pollution

 

Low Emission Development Strategies

Continuous funding from local governments is a crucial determinant to the effectiveness of such policies. Such jurisdictions will offer incentives to citizens to use low-emission cars focused on the usage of renewable sources of electricity. We could also encourage the use of other transport methods, such as biking and walking, public transportation and arrangements to share / pool cars, that reduce pollutants effectively.

Are Electric Vehicles Good for the Environment?

Over the last ten years, electric vehicles (EVs), largely as a consequence of their small emissions of flue gas and a reduced dependence on gasoline, have been common. In 2022, EVs are expected to reach about 35 million worldwide. A big issue with EVs, though, is that their strong usage raises the power system division and transformer shortage and competition for heavy energy. The incorporation of local energy generation including RESs in an EV charging system is an successful solution to the effects.

Fossil fuels produce 60% of the worldwide electricity

On average, 60 % of the world’s power comes out from coal and gas, that is to say, from fossil fuels. I.e., a car emits almost as much CO2 as a petrol or diesel car per kilo metre.

The vehicle emissions are classified broadly in two types:

  1. direct and
  2. life cycles.
Direct emissions:

Direct emissions are released through the car’s exhaust, via the fuel system’s evaporation during the fueling process. Direct emissions include smog-forming emissions (such as nitrogen oxides, other human health-destroying contaminants) and greenhouse gases, predominantly CO2. The generation of zero direct emissions in electric vehicles is especially helpful in improving quality of the air. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles which also have an electric motor and a gasoline engine, emit fuel-system evaporation emissions.

Life cycle Emissions:

The emissions from the life cycle included all emissions related to the manufacture, refining, distribution, use and recovery / deposition of fuel. For example, emissions are produced by the mining of petroleum, refining to gasoline and distributing to stations and burning in vehicle, for a traditional gasoline vehicle. As direct emissions, a number of harmful contaminants and Green House Gases are part of the life-cycle emissions.

All vehicles generate large emissions from the life cycle and are difficult to quantify. However, the generation of energy is usually less than traditional vehicles since the bulk of energy emissions are lower than combustion of petrol or diesel.


 

Flat Plate Collectors | Flat Plate Heat Exchanger | Solar Thermal Collectors

Introduction to Flat Plate Collectors:

Flat-plate collectors are a very helpful device for low to medium temperature heat collection from the sun. They can be used for a lot of uses including a variety of thermal desalting process from low to medium capacities. Flat-plate collectors enclose simple characteristics: they are simply assembled, and effortlessly operated.

01-Basic flat plate Collector - Parts of Flat Plate Collector

The plan of any system that shifts solar radiant power into thermal energy is the sensible application of the thermal energy itself. Solar Thermal Energy application can be able to direct as heat or indirect by using the heat to force a heat engine to produce useful mechanical energy or to use the thermal energy for electrical energy production. For this cause unique devices are used called solar thermal collectors. The principle of a solar thermal collector is to absorb the radiant energy of the sun and to convey the significant heat to a fluid which in turn relocates the thermal energy to the place of relevance. In familiar, solar collectors are classified according to their thermal output temperature which establishes also the field of their application.

01-flat plate collector parts - flat plate air collectors - flat plate liquid collectors

 

For solar applications to be suitable, this transport headed for a lower temperature stage is important. While high-priced high concentrating solar systems are essential to generate quantities of steam or oil with temperatures of more than a few hundred degree Celsius, temperatures below 150°C can be created by high efficiency standard collectors without or with just low concentration of the solar radiation.

clip_image006

Flat-plate collectors are planned for applications require low to moderate temperatures in general up to 110°C higher than ambient temperatures. The simplest flat plate collectors are the solar ponds and the solar stills which function by direct utilization of the incident solar radiation acting simultaneously as solar energy converters. The importance of flat-plate collectors is that their thermal performance.

Solar Collector Applications

Solar collectors are very popular for setting up in a region where there are high irradiation intensities and clear sunshine days. They can be installed simply in individual houses for domestic hot water, in hotel buildings and in municipal installations, such as athletic centres for hot water use and for heating swimming pools.

Huge mercantile installations with high capacity are used in industry to produce process water or, in solar desalination plants to produce moderate temperature water, as feed to low or medium temperature distillation plants. In general they are useful tools for hot water production.

01-liquid flat plate collectors - flat plate collector applications - solar water heating

The higher temperatures required which will be achieved by the minimisation of the collector U-value (Heat loss coefficient). It is in the nature of the things that this minimisation of the U-value which increases the stagnation temperature. Solar Thermal Collectors which are used in thermal process heat applications (Range: up to 150°C), must reach stagnation temperatures greater than 300°C. So all the parts of the thermal collector such as selective absorber coatings for the black absorber medium, insulation materials for the backside of the absorber have to be able to endure high temperatures.

In addition to thermal radiation losses the air inside the collector, consistently at atmospheric pressure, is transferring energy primarily by convection as well as by conduction. Hence the collectors itself have to be insulated against the surroundings. Likewise the Back side of the collector also insulated with a variety of temperature and humidity resistant thick materials offered on the market, the front of the collector is more awkward since it is out in the open to solar radiation. Transparent insulation materials in addition high transmittance for solar radiation with low heat conductance are required to achieve more temperature.