Category: Thermal

Hydropower Plants vs Thermal Power Plants | 5 Things You Need To Know About Hydropower Plants Over Thermal Power Plants

Hydro and thermal power Plants: Importance and Related problems

Thermal power stations and hydropower plants project mainly address the current world’s energy needs. This article discusses the functioning of thermal power and hydropower plants. It also examines the problems of these two power plant types.

The progress of civilisation has led to a worldwide increase in the energy demand. The world’s total energy demand is mainly met through hydropower and thermal power. It is therefore important for us to understand the functioning of a hydroelectric power plant and thermal power plant. The problems linked to these two power stations have to be addressed.

Hydropower plants

Why are thermal power plants so widespread?

A thermal power plant is an area for the generation of electricity by using heating energy. It is the most common and conventional electricity source. Let us examine the functioning of a thermal plant. A thermal energy system uses steam to generate fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and natural gas. This formed steam produces a pressure that turns the turbine inside the plant. By rotating the turbines, electricity is generated.

01 thermal power plant advantages of thermal power plant Thermal Thermal hydropower plants

Thermal energy plants have the following advantages:

The initial cost of a thermal power plant is less than for other power stations, with a little less land. The fuel utilised is also low – priced (i.e. fossil fuel). Many countries are largely dependent on electricity from thermal power. Around 40% of the world’s power is estimated to be made from fossil fuels.

The pollution caused by the emissions of large quantities of smoke and carbon dioxides has however been criticised for Thermal Power Plants. This is a significant cause of global warming. In addition, a thermal power plant is low in overall efficiency (below 40 percent). The stock of fossil fuel is also rapidly diminishing. The researchers therefore give strong advice on thermal power plants.

Why does hydropower plants more acceptable than thermal power plant to generate electricity?

A hydropower plant uses the flow of water for electricity generation. Experts argue that hydropower is more acceptable than the other because of many reasons. One of the major advantages is that hydropower plants need no fossil fuel for power production (which is a depleting source). These plants require only water, a renewable energy source. Thermal plants, on the other hand, require functioning fossil fuels such as coal, gas, oil, etc.

Hydropower plants have the followed advantages:

Hydropower draws energy out of water falling or flowing, and turns it into power without consuming, wasting or depleting water. Hydropower does not produce air pollutants and has extremely low to nil emissions of greenhouse gases. The green house gases of hydropower are just as low as wind power and are often even lower from a study of full life-cycle evaluation.

The energy costs generated by hydropower plants are somewhat constant because there is no need for fuel. Pollution is also an important factor in hydropower plants. Hydropower plants do not burn fuel, so they do not pollute. However, the heated water from such plants is endangering aquatic lives. In addition, they take up more space than thermal power stations. Experts now believe that the cause of earthquakes in the hills is due to the construction of hydroelectric power plants.

01 Why does hydropower plants more acceptable than thermal power plant to generate electricity Thermal Thermal hydropower plants

Several hydropower systems can produce electricity range from zero power to maximum output so, quickly. Since hydroelectricity plants can instantly generate electricity to the grid, they provide essential backup power during major power outages or interruptions.

In comparison to thermal plants, hydroelectric power plants also have longer life. Furthermore, hydropower plants are known to facilitate irrigation and flood prevention of farm irrigation. This technology is used in power generation by more or less 150 countries around the world.

The overall capacity of hydroelectric plants in the world is just 20 percent. China is the biggest manufacturer, followed by the United States, Brazil and Canada in export hydroelectricity. Roughly 66 percent of hydropower is yet to be drawn from. In Central Africa, China, India and Latin America, untapped opportunities are still available.

As mentioned earlier, these two power plants meet the world’s maximum energy requirement. However, due to the problems mentioned above and given the rapidly increasing energy demand, the time has come to switch directly to wind and solar energy.

How Thermo-flask can keep heat for a longer period of time? Everything You’ve Ever Wanted to Know About Vacuum Flask In 10 Simple Steps

Thermo-Flask

The article demonstrates the scientific explanation behind this thermo-flask bottle. Three different modes of heat transfer such as conduction, conviction and radiation transfer. For users’ interest, the best use of thermo flasks is also incorporated.

thermo-flask-vacuum-flask-thermos

Today the thermo-flask bottle (Vacuum flask or thermos or Dewar flask, Dewar Bottle) became one of our household’s most important material. Nearly all of them occasionally or regularly use thermo flasks depending on their requirements. It is a big question why the water in the thermo flask bottle will remain warm for longer periods. The school kids from 12 to 16 years of age and sometimes beyond this age limit raised the question more often. This means, every household needs flasks that become essential.

Scientific reason behind the long term heat retention of the thermo-flasks:

The scientific fact behind this thermo flask bottle gives me great pleasure to explain. Three ways of heat loss by water are applicable. The way they are:

1. Conduction 

2. Convection 

3. Radiation

The theory states that, if we minimise these three heat transmission modes, the temperature of the water can be maintained for a longer period. Let us talk about how this occurs in thermo-flask construction.

01 Scientific reason behind the long term heat retention of the thermo flasks Thermal Thermal Thermo-flask

Conduction is the first way to lose the heat. The thermo-flask consists of glass that is the good insulator in room temperature and perfect conductor when heated to a high temperature. Thus, in this method conduction process cannot escapes heat. The second step is convection, which is used by air media to transfer heat to the environment. Therefore, t he flask is made of two glass walls and then create vacuum in between the two walls. So in between the walls of the bottle there is no air. Hence, vacuum generation limits the transfer of heat.

Thus, due to convection, no heat transfer occurs. Radiation is the third and last way to transmit heat. In the form of radiation, heat can be lost. The wall of the flask is coated with silver to prevent the loss of heat via radiation to reduce this form of heat loss. At last, a ll three methods of heat transfer are finally limited. This means it’s not possible to loss heat inside the bottle in order to keep the water warm.

We can use a basic equation to understand how a thermos still allows the heat flow equation to look at:

thermodynamics equation 1 Thermal Thermal Thermo-flask

The thermos are designed to keep warm or cold without assistance so we can take no heat transfer. The thermo-lid and the container provide the sources of heat flow out.

thermodynamics equation 2 Thermal Thermal Thermo-flask

Next, the heat flow from the container sides is zero when the best thermal material are used, because reflective vacuum may not pass through heat.

thermodynamics equation 3 Thermal Thermal Thermo-flask

It shows that the only heat flow is through the lid if the thermo-flask is perfectly insulated. The signs of heat flow depend on whether the thermos contain a warm and cool substance, either negative or positive.

History of Thermo-Flasks 

However, thermos are used in labs and experiments not only to maintain the warmth of your coffee but also for conducting experiments. If you have a laboratory that uses a Dewar (i.e., a double walled flask of metal or silvered glass with vacuum in between them) you tell us a ‘thermos’. The use of thermo-flasks began in 1892 by Sir James Dewar. The real name is dewar, but the name of dewar is taken over from the general public by Thermos, the first commercial producer of dewars. In experiments, scientists use dewars to maintain experiments at constant temperatures. Dewars are also used in industries to hold liquified gases or flash freezing. Any time a low temperature is desired, a dewar is used.

Uses of thermos flask:

From hot liquids to cold fruit juices, you can enjoy food and drink when you’re away from home with a thermos. Here are a few great ideas to start with.

• Flask is primarily used in the clinic. If a family member receives tea, coffee, milk, or hot water, then he or she needs a flask.

• Flask is extremely useful to maintain infant hot milk. It was a problem in late hours with heating milk.

• For the making of juice or cold drink we use flask to store ice cubes or cold water.

• Children who are preparing for examinations often notice that they want to keep few cups of tea in the bottle late in the night to drink.

• To get from one place to another is very easy.