Automobile Chassis | Basic Components of Chassis in an Automobile System

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Components of the Automobile chassis

The various components of the Automobile chassis and their location in a vehicle can be seen in this picture

Chassis - basic parts in automobile chassis system
Modern Automobile chassis construction and their parts list

Chassis – basic parts in automobile chassis system. The name “chassis” comes from the French word “chassis,” which originally meant “frame” or “primary pillar” of a car. All of the main units are used to propel the vehicle, direct its motion, stop it, and allow it to run smoothly over rough surfaces are mounted in the automobile chassis. It serves as the primary mounting point for all parts, including the body. The carrying unit is another name for the automobile chassis system. The main components of the automobile chassis are:

  • Engine
  • Radiator
  • Clutch
  • Gearbox
  • Universal Joints
  • Final Drive
  • Differential
  • Half axle
  • Frame
  • Springs and Wheels
  • Special dampers
  • Electrical system
  • Steering system
  • Brake system
  • Engine control

Engine produces power required to move the vehicle at the desired speed, overcoming the external resistances. This can be a SI engine or CI engine or gas engine.

Radiator is a device used to re-cool the hot engine cooling water for recirculation purpose. The radiator is connected by rubber hoses to the engine, to allow the cooling system water to circulate between them. Other parts of the cooling system are fan, fan belt drive, and water circulating pump.

Clutch helps to isolate the engine from the transmission system as and when required. It also permits the vehicle to be started from rest, smoothly and with jerks.

Gearbox provides the torque of the required amount at the driving road wheels. Whenever the resistance to be overcome by the vehicle alters, the gear ratio of the power train is to be changed. The gear box serves precisely this purpose. The gearbox also helps to reverse the vehicle.

Universal joints cum propeller shaft transmits the torque from the gearbox shaft to the final drive. The gearbox is usually attached to the vehicle frame. The final drive, differential and rear axle are connected to the frame by means of springs. As the tyres of the vehicle hit the bumps in the road, the rear axle moves up and down. The universal joints help the propeller shaft to assume different inclination. The propeller shaft has a sliding arrangement within itself. This helps the shaft to have different lengths when the shaft assumes different inclinations.

Final drive transmits the torque from the longitudinal universal joints cum propeller shaft to the transverse driving half axle shafts and the wheels. The final drive also multiplies the driving torque.

Differential allows the driving wheels on the two sides of the vehicle to rotate at the same speed when moving over a straight road and at different speeds whenever the vehicle makes a turn.

Half-axle drive shafts transmit the driving torque from the final drive and differential unit to the driving road wheels.

Frame-supports the engine, vehicle body, wheels and other components.

Spring and wheels transmit the vehicle load from the frame to the road. They also damp jerks and shocks when the vehicle wheel hits bumps in the road.

Special dampers dampen the resulting oscillations of the springs when the vehicle wheel hits bumps in the road.

Electrical system in the Automobile chassis consists of a battery, starting motor, generator/alternator, and controls, and in the case of a spark ignition power plant the engine ignition system and lighting arrangement.

Controls in a vehicle include steering system, brake system, engine control and power train control.

Steering system is used to change the direction of motion of the vehicle by turning the front wheels. The front wheels are linked to the steering wheel which is operated by the driver, by a system of levers and rods.

Brake system ensures safe driving of the vehicle. With the brake system, the vehicle can be stopped quickly, or slowed down while going down a slope. The brakes are mounted on all the wheels of a vehicle. The brakes are connected with the brake pedal or lever by means of mechanical, hydraulic or air operated devices.

Engine control refers to the mechanism which permits a variation in the revolutions of the engine crankshaft in accordance with demands. In a vehicle this refers to the accelerator pedal and the connected system.

Modern Automobile chassis construction and their parts list

Powertrain control boils to engaging and disengaging the clutch and the gearbox. These controls, thereby, make the speed and torque variation possible.

Types of Automobile Chassis Frames

Chassis frame sections come in a variety of designs.

1. Channel section 2. Box section 3. Tube section

Non-load supporting frame is another term for traditional frame. The chassis, which is the vehicle’s main skeleton, transfers the vehicle’s loads to the suspension in this kind of frame. Long members use the channel section, while short members use the box section. Three-wheelers, scooters, matadors, and pickup vans all use the tubular section nowadays. The frames must be able to withstand the weight of passengers at abrupt braking and collisions.

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