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Composites Manufacturing Methods | Thermoset Fabrication Process | Thermoplastic Manufacturing Process

Thermoset Composites Manufacturing Methods:

There are several composites manufacturing methods. The most common method is infusion. In this process, the fiber and resin are mixed together before being laid into the mold. After it has cured, the remaining resin is trimmed away from both sides of the product. 

Composites manufacturing is a process that uses two or more materials to create a new material with unique characteristics. While composites are most often thought of in terms of carbon fiber, the process can be used with other materials including glass fiber, aramid fiber and natural fibers. 

1. Hand layup method:

The Hand Layup method is simple and suitable for simple components. A coat of resin is applied on a tool surface and a layer of mat or fabric reinforcement is placed on the tool surface. The process is repeated till the required thickness of the laminate is reached. This is cured at 25 – 40 degree Celsius. No pressure is required.


2. Vacuum bag method:

Lay-up of laminates is covered by an airtight rubber membrane and the air under membrane is evacuated, which helps compaction and removal of air bubbles. This is cured at 25 – 40 degree Celsius at a pressure of 1 bar.


3. Autoclave method:

This method is similar to the vacuum bag method. The laid up assembly is covered with an airtight assembly and sealed against the tool. The assembly is then placed in an autoclave where vacuum, pressure and the cure process is tightly controlled.


4. Resin injection:

This method requires top and bottom halves of tools whose shape corresponds to the desired thickness and configuration of the part. The reinforcing materials, in the form of fabrics or mats, are placed between the tool halves in dry plates. The resin is injected by means of vacuum. The system is cured at 25 – 40 degree Celsius at a pressure of 1 bar.


5. Pultrusion:

This is the reverse of extrusion. Material is pulled through a die. This method is used for producing straight lengths of solid or hollow cross section.


6. Filament winding:

Resin covered continuous rovings, bands or mats are placed on a rotating mandrel and cured. This method is used to produce parts with elliptical or oval cross-sections and circular cross sections.


7. High and low temperature compression moulding:

As in the case of resin injection, the top and bottom tool halves are required. Resin is poured into the lower tool half, followed by placement of a prepared staple of weaves or mats. Closure of the tool under pressure causes the resin to penetrate the reinforcing material.


Thermo plastic resins Manufacturing methods:

The following methods are used for producing components:

1. Hot stamping:

To produce plane or simple curved parts.


2. Super plastic forming:

To produce parts with medium geometric complexity


3. Autoclave technique:

To produce flat laminates


4. Filament winding:

To produce components with regular geometric cross section


5. Melt impregnation techniques:

To produce laminates for sandwich type assembly.


Why are composites so important?

Description: Composites are a material that combines two or more materials to create a new, stronger type of material. These types of materials can be used in several different industries and situations.

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