Errors in Measurement :
Error = Measured Value – True Value
Em = Vm – Vt
Absolute Error :
True absolute error :
= Result of measurement – True Value
Apparent Absolute Error:
= Result of measurement – Arithmetic Value
Relative error :
It is defined as the result of the absolute error and the value of comparison used for the calculation of that absolute error.
Causes of errors:
These are caused by the variation in the calibrated scale from its normal value.
Environmental Error :
These are caused by humidity conditions, temperature, and altitude.
i. Displaced Scale (incorrect Fitting)
ii. Non-uniform division of the scale.
iii. Due to bent/distorted pointer.
Systematic errors (or) Bias errors:
These are caused due to repeated readings.
Chaotic errors :
These are caused due to vibrations,noises and shocks.