Errors in Measurement :
Error = Measured Value – True Value
Em = Vm – Vt
1. Absolute Error :
True absolute error :
= Result of measurement – True Value
Apparent Absolute error :
= Result of measurement – Arithmetic Value
2. Relative error :
It is defined as the results of the absolute error and the value of comparison used for 450
calculation of that absolute error.
Causes of Errors :
1. Calibration Error:
These are caused due to the variation in the calibrated scale from it’s normal value.
2. Environmental Error :
These are caused due to humidity condition,Temperature and altitude.
3. Assembly Error:
i. Displaced Scale (incorrect Fitting)
ii. Non –uniform division of the scale.
iii. Due to bent /distorted pointer.
4. Random Error:
No specific reasons
5. Systematic errors (or) Bias errors:
These are caused due to repeated readings.
6. Chaotic errors :
These are caused due to vibrations,noises and shocks.