INTRODUCTION TO STRUCTURE OF METALS AND ALLOYS
- A crystalline material is one in which the atoms are situated in a repeating (or) periodic array over large atomic distances.
Non Crystalline Materials:
- Materials that do not crystallize are called non-crystalline (or) Amorphous materials
- Lattice is the regular geometrical arrangement of points in crystal space.
- The atoms arrange themselves in distinct pattern in space is called a Space Lattice.
- Atoms in crystalline materials are arranged in a regular 3 – Dimensional repeating pattern known as Lattice Structure.
- They are divided by network of lines in to equal volumes, the points of intersection are known as Lattice Points.
- It is the smallest portion of the lattice which repeated in all directions.
- 3D visualization of 14 Space Lattices are known as Bravai’s Space Lattice.
- If a unit cell contains lattice points only at it’s corners, then it is called Primitive Unit Cell (or) Simple Unit Cell.
- Three edge length x,y, & z and three interaxial angles α, β, & γ are termed as Lattice Parameters.
- It is a scheme by which crystal structures are classified according to unit cell geometry.
Types of Crystal Systems:
Simple Crystal Structure:
Body Centered Cubic Structure (BCC)
- Unit cell contains 2 atoms
- Lattice Constant a= 4r / √3, where r is atomic radius
- Atomic packing factor APF = 0.68
- Metals are Vanadium, Molybdenum, Titanium, Tungsten
Face Centered Cubic (FCC)
- Unit cell contains 4 atoms
- Lattice Constant a= 4r / √2, where r is atomic radius
- Atomic packing factor APF = 0.72
- FCC structures can be plastic deformed at severe rates
- Metals are Copper, Aluminum, Phosphorous, Nickel, Cobalt etc
- Unit cell contains 3 atoms
- Axial ratio c/a, where ‘c’ is Distance between base planes, ‘a’ is Width of Hexagon
- Axial Ratio varies from 1.58 for Beryllium to 1.88 for Cadmium (Therefore a=2.9787, c=5.617)
- Atomic packing factor APF = 0.74
- Metals are Zinc, Cadmium, Beryllium, Magnesium etc
Crystallographic Planes and Directions
The Layers of atoms in the planes along which atoms are arranged is known as “Atomic” (or) “Crystallographic planes”.
Miller Indices is a system of notation that denotes the orientation of the faces of a crystal and the planes and directions of atoms within that crystal.
Miller Indices for Planes:
1. The (110) surface
Intercepts : a , a , ∞
Fractional intercepts : 1 , 1 , ∞
Miller Indices : (110)
2. The (111) surface
Intercepts : a , a , a
Fractional intercepts : 1 , 1 , 1
Miller Indices : (111)
The (100), (110) and (111) surfaces considered above are the so-called low index surfaces of a cubic crystal system.
3. The (210) surface
Fractional intercepts : ½ , 1 , ∞
Miller Indices : (210)
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