Lubrication and Lubricants | Lubrication System Parts and It’s Function | Types of Lubricants and How They are Used

Maximum performance with gear oils made by Klüber Lubrication

Objects of Lubrication:


To reduce friction between moving parts so as to reduce

  • Power loss
  • Wear of the moving parts


  • To provide cooling effect
  • To provide cushioning effect
  • To provide cleaning action
  • To provide sealing action

01 - lubricant preparation

Purpose of Lubrication:

  • To reduce friction
  • To cool down moving parts
  • To prevent corrosion (component wear from chemical reaction with air and the moist)
  • To prevent contamination

Requirements of Lubricants:

  • Viscosity
  • Physical stability
  • Chemical stability
  • Resistance against corrosion
  • Pour point
  • Flash point
  • Cleanliness
  • Resistance against extreme pressure

01- Requirements of Lubricants - What is a lubricant

Forms of Lubricant:

  • Liquid Lubricants (Ex. Petroil for automotive engines)
  • Semisolid Lubricants (Ex. Grease)
  • Solid (Dry) Lubricants (Ex. Graphite Powder and Molybdenum Disulfide)
  • Gas Lubricants (Ex. Pressurized Nitrogen gas)

Oil additives:

Oil additives are chemical compounds that improve the lubricant performance of base oil

  • Oxidation inhibitors
  • Corrosion inhibitors
  • Detergents and dispersants
  • Anti-scuff additives
  • Viscosity index improvers
  • Anti-foaming additives
  • Extreme pressure additives
  • Pour point depressants
  • Others

Classifications are:

  • Extreme pressure additives
  • Oxidation Inhibitors
  • Detergent  Dispersants
  • Rust Inhibitors
  • Foam Inhibitors
  • Pour point Depressants

01-list of additives - lubricant additive classification

Types of Lubricants:

  • Animal oils
  • Vegetable oils
  • Mineral Oils
  • Synthetic Lubricants
  • Greases
  • Solid Lubricants

01- types of lubricant

Viscosity ratings:

Lubricant grade standards are Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE), International Standards Organization (ISO), American Gear Manufacturers Association (AGMA)

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  • SAE ratings: 0W, 5W, 10W, 20W, 25W, 10, 15, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 80, 100, 150, 200, 300
  • API ratings:
  • Petrol Engines – SA, SB, SC,…… to SM
  • Diesel Engines – CA, CB, CC,…… to CH
  • Gear Oil – GL-1, GL-2, GL-3, GL-4, GL-5, MT-1

01 - Viscosity ratings of oil lubricants - Standard lubrication grades

Methods of Applying Lubricants:

There are Six main methods of applying lubricants:

  • Manual Methods – such as manual grease gun
  • Drip Methods – use gravity to supply oil drops
  • Automatic Grease Lubricators – A reservoir is used to supply grease. The grease is put under pressure by the action of a spring to supply grease at a pre-calculated amount
  • Bath method – such as in lubricating chains
  • Splash and submersion methods – such as in gearboxes, where splashing is performed by the rotating gears
  • Pressurized lubrication systems – such as in automotive engines


Testing of Lubricants:

Physical tests:

  • Viscosity test
  • Flash point and fire point test
  • Loss due to evaporation
  • Cold test or Pour point test
  • Specific gravity test

01 - saybolt viscometer - lubricant viscosity test

01- Flash point and Fire point test

01- pour point test

01 - specific-gravity-pycnometer-test

Chemical Tests:

  • Acid value test
  • Saponification value test
  • Insoluble residue test
  • Moisture and Emulsification test
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01- acid value test

01-saponification test



Effect of Engine conditions or Lubricating oil:

  • Sludge formation
  • Lacquer formation
  • Oil dilution

Sources of Oil consumption in the engine:

  • Combustion
  • Loss through leakage
  • Loss through crankcase ventilation
  • Loss on account of wear of engine parts
  • Loss due to excessive vehicle speed

Main engine parts requiring lubrication:

  • Main bearings
  • Big end bearings
  • Gudgeon pin bearings
  • Piston rings and cylinder walls
  • Timing gears
  • Camshaft and camshaft bearings
  • Valve mechanism
  • Electrical equipment like distributor drive, generator, starting motor etc

Systems of Engine Lubrication:

  • Petroil system
  • Splash system
  • Pressure system
  • Dry sump system


Components of pressure system of lubrication:

  • Oil strainer
  • Oil pump
  • Oil filter
  • Oil level indicator
  • Oil Pressure gauge
  • Oil pressure warning light


Types of Oil pumps:

  • Gear pump
  • Crescent type gear pump
  • Rotor pump
  • Plunger pump
  • Vane pump

Oil Filtering systems:

  • By-pass system
  • Full flow system

Types of Oil filters:

  • Cartridge type
  • Edge type or Stack type
  • Centrifugal type

Lubrication system service:

  • Checking the oil level
  • Oil change
  • Checking the oil pump
  • Checking the Oil filter

Lubrication system troubles:

  • Low oil pressure
  • High oil pressure
  • Excessive oil consumption
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1 Reply to “Lubrication and Lubricants | Lubrication System Parts and It’s Function | Types of Lubricants and How They are Used”

  1. I like that you said the primary object of lubrication is to reduce friction between moving parts. As far as I know, having a machine properly lubricated is key to keep its good performance. Plus, if you regularly maintain it, you’d be ensuring to increase its lifespan and reduce the risk of having to replace it. You did a great job explaining lubrication and how it’s used.

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