Lubrication and Lubricants | Lubrication System Parts and It’s Function | Types of Lubricants and How They are Used

Maximum performance with gear oils made by Klüber Lubrication

Objects of Lubrication:


To reduce friction between moving parts so as to reduce

  • Power loss
  • Wear of the moving parts


  • To provide cooling effect
  • To provide cushioning effect
  • To provide cleaning action
  • To provide sealing action

01 - lubricant preparation

Purpose of Lubrication:

  • To reduce friction
  • To cool down moving parts
  • To prevent corrosion (component wear from chemical reaction with air and the moist)
  • To prevent contamination

Requirements of Lubricants:

  • Viscosity
  • Physical stability
  • Chemical stability
  • Resistance against corrosion
  • Pour point
  • Flash point
  • Cleanliness
  • Resistance against extreme pressure

01- Requirements of Lubricants - What is a lubricant

Forms of Lubricant:

  • Liquid Lubricants (Ex. Petroil for automotive engines)
  • Semisolid Lubricants (Ex. Grease)
  • Solid (Dry) Lubricants (Ex. Graphite Powder and Molybdenum Disulfide)
  • Gas Lubricants (Ex. Pressurized Nitrogen gas)

Oil additives:

Oil additives are chemical compounds that improve the lubricant performance of base oil

  • Oxidation inhibitors
  • Corrosion inhibitors
  • Detergents and dispersants
  • Anti-scuff additives
  • Viscosity index improvers
  • Anti-foaming additives
  • Extreme pressure additives
  • Pour point depressants
  • Others

Classifications are:

  • Extreme pressure additives
  • Oxidation Inhibitors
  • Detergent  Dispersants
  • Rust Inhibitors
  • Foam Inhibitors
  • Pour point Depressants

01-list of additives - lubricant additive classification

Types of Lubricants:

  • Animal oils
  • Vegetable oils
  • Mineral Oils
  • Synthetic Lubricants
  • Greases
  • Solid Lubricants

01- types of lubricant

Viscosity ratings:

Lubricant grade standards are Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE), International Standards Organization (ISO), American Gear Manufacturers Association (AGMA)

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  • SAE ratings: 0W, 5W, 10W, 20W, 25W, 10, 15, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 80, 100, 150, 200, 300
  • API ratings:
  • Petrol Engines – SA, SB, SC,…… to SM
  • Diesel Engines – CA, CB, CC,…… to CH
  • Gear Oil – GL-1, GL-2, GL-3, GL-4, GL-5, MT-1

01 - Viscosity ratings of oil lubricants - Standard lubrication grades

Methods of Applying Lubricants:

There are Six main methods of applying lubricants:

  • Manual Methods – such as manual grease gun
  • Drip Methods – use gravity to supply oil drops
  • Automatic Grease Lubricators – A reservoir is used to supply grease. The grease is put under pressure by the action of a spring to supply grease at a pre-calculated amount
  • Bath method – such as in lubricating chains
  • Splash and submersion methods – such as in gearboxes, where splashing is performed by the rotating gears
  • Pressurized lubrication systems – such as in automotive engines


Testing of Lubricants:

Physical tests:

  • Viscosity test
  • Flash point and fire point test
  • Loss due to evaporation
  • Cold test or Pour point test
  • Specific gravity test

01 - saybolt viscometer - lubricant viscosity test

01- Flash point and Fire point test

01- pour point test

01 - specific-gravity-pycnometer-test

Chemical Tests:

  • Acid value test
  • Saponification value test
  • Insoluble residue test
  • Moisture and Emulsification test
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01- acid value test

01-saponification test



Effect of Engine conditions or Lubricating oil:

  • Sludge formation
  • Lacquer formation
  • Oil dilution

Sources of Oil consumption in the engine:

  • Combustion
  • Loss through leakage
  • Loss through crankcase ventilation
  • Loss on account of wear of engine parts
  • Loss due to excessive vehicle speed

Main engine parts requiring lubrication:

  • Main bearings
  • Big end bearings
  • Gudgeon pin bearings
  • Piston rings and cylinder walls
  • Timing gears
  • Camshaft and camshaft bearings
  • Valve mechanism
  • Electrical equipment like distributor drive, generator, starting motor etc

Systems of Engine Lubrication:

  • Petroil system
  • Splash system
  • Pressure system
  • Dry sump system


Components of pressure system of lubrication:

  • Oil strainer
  • Oil pump
  • Oil filter
  • Oil level indicator
  • Oil Pressure gauge
  • Oil pressure warning light


Types of Oil pumps:

  • Gear pump
  • Crescent type gear pump
  • Rotor pump
  • Plunger pump
  • Vane pump

Oil Filtering systems:

  • By-pass system
  • Full flow system

Types of Oil filters:

  • Cartridge type
  • Edge type or Stack type
  • Centrifugal type

Lubrication system service:

  • Checking the oil level
  • Oil change
  • Checking the oil pump
  • Checking the Oil filter

Lubrication system troubles:

  • Low oil pressure
  • High oil pressure
  • Excessive oil consumption
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