# SHAPES AND STRUCTURES | TRIANGULAR SHAPE | PYRAMIDS AND WEDGES

Some shapes are wider at the bottom than the top. This is called tapering. A tapering shape on its side is a wedge. It can be used to force even giant blocks apart.

# The great pyramids

A pyramid is a shape that has triangular sides meeting in a point. The great pyramids of Giza in Egypt are tombs for kings (pharaohs) that were built by the Ancient Egyptians over 3000 years ago.

The builders of the pyramids found out about strong shapes by trial and error. At first they built a pyramid with steeply sloping sides. They found that this kept falling down.

Having learned this lesson they built pyramids with less steep sides.

# Triangular test

Wedges and pyramids are examples of a triangular shape that can stand up to great forces. It has been used in the design of the skyscraper shown in the picture above.

# Make a door stop

A wedge is a tapering shape that makes a good kind of doorstop. Ask a grown-up to saw a piece of wood to give several wedge shapes like the ones shown below.

Try each wedge in turn to see which one is best at holding a door open. When you have found the one that works best, compare it with a doorstop that can be bought in a shop. Are the shapes similar?

# Opening wedges

Wedges are good at prising things apart because they have a thin blade at one end which changes to a thick blade at the other. You can see a wedge-shape at the end of this chisel. It is used for making a cut in wood.

# Methods of Compacting / Powder Metallurgy

Methods are:

1. Pressing
2. Centrifugal Casting
3. Slip Casting
4. Extruding
5. Gravity Casting
6. Rolling
7. Iso-static Moulding
8. Explosive Compacting
9. Fibre Metal processes

Pressing:

The function principles of the mechanic press machines differ in how to ensure the upper punch main movement by cams, spindles and friction drives, eccentric, knuckle-joints or by the round table principle, independent if the die or lower punch movement is realized by cams  or eccentric systems or other mechanically or hydraulically combined systems. The executions of auxiliary movements are also not decisive for a term-classification. These auxiliary movements can also base on pneumatic and hydraulic principles. In comparison to hydraulic press machines the maximum compaction forces of mechanical powder presses are limited and are placed in the range </= 5000 kN. For the requirements of wet and dry pressing techniques in the field of Technical Ceramics cams, eccentric, knuckle joint as well as round table presses have proved and tested, whereas cam presses especially used for wet-press-techniques of pourable materials. The range of compaction force of mechanical presses for products of the Technical Ceramics is < 2500 kN, what is caused from the less density of the ceramic materials. Normally the upper punch, lower punch and die systems of mechanical presses don’t work on base of multi subdivided punches.

Centrifugal Casting:

It employed for compacting heavy metal powders such as Tungsten Carbide. The powder is twirled in a mould and packed uniformly with pressures up to 3 MPa. The uniform density is obtained as a result of centrifugal force, acting on each particle of powder.

Slip Casting:

Green compact of metal powder may be obtained by slip casting. The slurry, consisting of metal powder is poured in to porous mould. the free liquid in a slurry is absorbed by the mould tearing the solid layer of material on the surface of mould. The mould may be vibrated to increase the density of component. The Components are dried and sintered to provide sufficient strength.

Extruding:

It employed to produce the components with high density and excellent mechanical properties.

Both hot and cold extrusion processes are used for compacting special materials. In cold extrusion the powder is mixed with binder and the mixture is often compressed into billet before being extruded. The binder must be removed before or during sintering. In hot extrusion the powder is compacted in to billet and is then heated to extruding temperature in non oxidizing atmosphere.

Gravity Casting:

It used for making sheets having controlled porosity, the powder is poured on a ceramic tray to form a uniform layer and then sintered up to 48 hrs in Ammonia Gas at high temperature. The sheets are then rolled to desired thickness and to obtain a better surface finish. Porous sheets of stainless steel, made by this process are used for filters.

Rolling:

It employed for making continuous strips and rods having controlled porosity with uniform mechanical properties. In this method the metal powder is feed in to two rolls, which compress and interlock the powder particles to form a sheet of sufficient strength. It is then sintered, re-rolled and heat treated if necessary. Metal powders which can be compacted in to strips include Copper, Brass, Bronze, Nickel, Monel and Stainless Steel.

Iso Static Moulding:

It used to obtain the products having uniform density and uniform strength in all directions. metal powder is placed in elastic mould (Deformable Mould) which is subjected to Gas pressure (65 to 650 MPa). After pressing the compact is removed.

Explosive Compacting:

It employed for pressing hard particles. The metal powder are placed in water proof bags which are immersed in water. It contained in a cylinder having wall thickness. Due to sudden deformation of change at the end of cylinder the pressure in the cylinder increases. The pressure used to press the metal powders to form green compact.

Fibre Metal Processes:

In this process, the metal fibers (Fine wires of Convenient length) are mixed with a liquid slurry and poured over a porous bottom. The liquid is drawed off leaving the green mat of fibre. The mat in which the fibers are randomly distributed is pressed and sintered. The products are mainly used for Filters, Battery Plates and Damping’s.