HISTORY OF CNC MACHINES | HISTORY OF COMPUTER INTEGRATED MANUFACTURING SYSTEMS (CIMS) | HISTORY OF CO-ORDINATE MEASURING MACHINE CMM

HISTORY OF COMPUTER INTEGRATED MANUFACTURING

Computer Integrated Manufacturing (CIM) is considered a natural evolution of the technology of CAD/CAM which by itself evolved by the integration of CAD and CAM.

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT, USA) is credited with pioneering the development in both CAD and CAM. The need to meet the design and manufacturing requirements of aerospace industries after the Second World War necessitated the development these technologies. The manufacturing technology available during late 40’s and early 50’s could not meet the design and manufacturing challenges arising out of the need to develop sophisticated aircraft and satellite launch vehicles. This prompted the US Air Force to approach MIT to develop suitable control systems, drives and programming techniques for machine tools using electronic control.

HISTORY OF CNC MACHINES

The first major innovation in machine control is the Numerical Control (NC), demonstrated at MIT in 1952. Early Numerical Control Systems were all basically hardwired systems, since these were built with discrete systems or with later first generation integrated chips. Early NC machines used paper tape as an input medium. Every NC machine was fitted with a tape reader to read paper tape and transfer the program to the memory of the machine tool block by block. Mainframe computers were used to control a group of NC machines by mid 60’s. This arrangement was then called Direct Numerical Control (DNC) as the computer bypassed the tape reader to transfer the program data to the machine controller. By late 60’s mini computers were being commonly used to control NC machines. At this stage NC became truly soft wired with the facilities of mass program storage, offline editing and software logic control and processing. This development is called Computer Numerical Control (CNC). Since 70’s, numerical controllers are being designed around microprocessors, resulting in compact CNC systems. A further development to this technology is the distributed numerical control (also called DNC) in which processing of NC program is carried out in different computers operating at different hierarchical levels – typically from mainframe host computers to plant computers to the machine controller.

Today the CNC systems are built around powerful 32 bit and 64 bit microprocessors. PC based systems are also becoming increasingly popular. Manufacturing engineers also started using computers for such tasks like inventory control- demand forecasting, production planning and control etc. CNC technology was adapted in the development of co-ordinate measuring machine’s (CMMS) which automated inspection. Robots were introduced to automate several tasks like machine loading, materials handling, welding, painting and assembly. All these developments led to the evolution of flexible manufacturing cells and flexible manufacturing systems in late 70’s.

HISTORY OF COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN

Evolution of Computer Aided Design (CAD), on the other hand was to cater to the geometric modeling needs of automobile and aeronautical industries. The developments in computers, design workstations, graphic cards, display devices and graphic input and output devices during the last ten years have been phenomenal. This coupled with the development of operating system with graphic user interfaces and powerful interactive (user friendly) software packages for modeling, drafting, analysis and optimization provides the necessary tools to automate the design process.

HISTORY OF APT LANGUAGE

CAD in fact owes its development to the APT language project at MIT in early 50’s. Several clones of APT were introduced in 80’s to automatically develop NC codes from the geometric model of the component. Now, one can model, draft, analyze, simulate, modify, optimize and create the NC code to manufacture a component and simulate the machining operation sitting at a computer workstation. If we review the manufacturing scenario during 80’s we will find that the manufacturing is characterized by a few islands of automation. In the case of design, the task is well automated. In the case of manufacture, CNC machines, DNC systems, FMC, FMS etc provide tightly controlled automation systems. Similarly computer control has been implemented in several areas like manufacturing resource planning, accounting, sales, marketing and purchase. Yet the full potential of computerization could not be obtained unless all the segments of manufacturing are integrated, permitting the transfer of data across various functional modules. This realization led to the concept of computer integrated manufacturing. Thus the implementation of CIM required the development of whole lot of computer technologies related to hardware and software.

COMPUTER INTEGRATED MANUFACTURING SYSTEMS CIMS | COMPUTER INTEGRATED MANUFACTURING EXAMPLES

COMPUTER INTEGRATED MANUFACTURING (CIM)

Computer Integrated Manufacturing (CIM) encompasses the entire range of product development and manufacturing activities with all the functions being carried out with the help of dedicated software packages. The data required for various functions are passed from one application software to another in a seamless manner.

Computer integrated manufacturing benefits

For example,

  • During designing product data is create and the data has to be transferred from the modeling software to manufacturing software without any loss of data.
  • CIM uses a common database wherever possible and communication technologies to integrate design, manufacturing and associated business functions that combine the automated segments of a factory or a manufacturing facility.
  • CIM reduces the human component of manufacturing and thereby relieves the process of its slow, expensive and error prone component. CIM stands for a fulfilment and methodological approach to the activities of the manufacturing enterprise in order to achieve vast improvement in its performance.
  • This methodological approach is applied to all activities from the design of the product to customer support in an integrated way, using various methods, means and techniques in order to achieve production improvement, cost reduction, fulfilment of scheduled delivery dates, quality improvement and total flexibility in the manufacturing system.
  • CIM requires all those associated with a company to involve totally in the process of product development and manufacture. In such a holistic approach, economic, social and human aspects have the same importance as technical aspects.
  • CIM also incorporates the whole lot of empowering technologies including total quality management, business process reengineering, concurrent engineering, workflow automation, enterprise resource planning and flexible manufacturing.
  • Manufacturing industries strive to reduce the cost of the product continuously to remain competitive in the face of global competition. In addition, there is the need to improve the quality, performance levels on a continuing basis and
    time on delivery. CIM has several software tools to address the above needs.

Manufacturing engineers are required to achieve the following objectives to be competitive in a global context.

  • Reduction in inventory
  • Lower the cost of the product
  • Reduce waste
  • Improve quality

Increase flexibility in manufacturing to achieve immediate and rapid response to

  • Product Changes
  • Production changes
  • Process changes
  • Equipment change and
  • Change of personnel

CIM technology is an enabling technology to meet the above challenges to the manufacturing.

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