Mechatronics, which is also called mechatronic engineering, is a multidisciplinary branch of engineering that focuses on the engineering of both electrical and mechanical systems, and also includes a combination of robotics, electronics, computer, telecommunications, systems, control, and product engineering. As technology advances over time, various subfields of engineering have succeeded in both adapting and multiplying. The intention of mechatronics is to produce a design solution that unifies each of these various subfields. Originally, the field of mechatronics was intended to be nothing more than a combination of mechanics and electronics, hence the name being a portmanteau of mechanics and electronics; however, as the complexity of technical systems continued to evolve, the definition had been broadened to include more technical areas. The word mechatronics originated in Japanese-English and was created by Tetsuro Mori, an engineer of Yaskawa Electric Corporation. The word mechatronics was registered as trademark by the company in Japan with the registration number of “46-32714” in 1971. However, afterward the company released the right of using the word to public, the word begun being used across the world. Nowadays, the word is translated into many languages and the word is considered as an essential term for industry. “Approach aiming at the synergistic integration of mechanics, electronics, control theory, and computer science within product design and manufacturing, in order to improve and/or optimize its functionality”. Many people treat mechatronics as a modern buzzword synonymous with robotics and electromechanical engineering.
DEVOLOPMENT OF MECHATRONICS:
A mechatronics engineer unites the principles of mechanics, electronics, and computing to generate a simpler, more economical and reliable system. The term “mechatronics” was coined by Tetsuro Mori, the senior engineer of the Japanese company Yaskawa in 1969. An industrial robot is a prime example of a mechatronics system; it includes aspects of electronics, mechanics, and computing to do its day-to-day jobs.
Engineering cybernetics deals with the question of control engineering of mechatronic systems. It is used to control or regulate such a system (see control theory). Through collaboration, the mechatronic modules perform the production goals and inherit flexible and agile manufacturing properties in the production scheme. Modern production equipment consists of mechatronic modules that are integrated according to a control architecture. The most known architectures involve hierarchy, polyarchy, heterarchy, and hybrid. The methods for achieving a technical effect are described by control algorithms, which might or might not utilize formal methods in their design. Hybrid systems important to mechatronics include production systems, synergy drives, planetary exploration rovers, automotive subsystems such as anti-lock braking systems and spin-assist, and everyday equipment such as autofocus cameras, video, hard disks, and CD players.
CONTROL EQUIPMENTS OF MECHATRONICS SYSTEM
Actuators and sensors
Signals and conditioning
Digital logic systems
Software and data acquisition systems
Computers and display devices.
ACTUATORS AND SENSORS
Sensors and actuators mostly come under mechanical system. The actuators produce some action or cause motion. The sensors detect the state of system parameters, inputs, and outputs. the various actuators used in mechatronic system are pneumatic or hydraulic actuators, electro mechanical actuators, electrical motors such as DC motor, AC motor, stepper motors, servo motor, and piezo electric system, are linear and rotational sensor, acceleration sensor, force, torque, pressure sensor, temperature sensor, proximity sensors, light sensor.
SIGNALS AND CONDITIONING
The mechatronic system deal with two types of signals and conditioning such as input and output. the various input signal conditioning devices used in mechatronic system are discrete circuits amplifier A/D convertors, D/D convertors.
DIGITAL LOGIC SYSTEM
Digital logic devices control overall system operations the various digital logic system used in mechatronic system are logic circuits, micro controller, programmable logic controllers, sequencing and timing controls.
SOFTWARE AND DATA ACQUISTION SYSTEM
Data acquisition system acquires the output signals from sensor in the form of voltage. frequency, resistance, etc. and it is inputted into the microprocessor or computer. software is used to control the acquisition of data through DAC board.
COMPUTERS AND DISPLAY DEVICES
Computers are used to store large no of data and process further through software. Display devices are used to visual feedback to the user. The various display device used in mechatronic system are LEDs, CRT, LCD, Digital display etc.