Mechatronics Meaning | Mechatronics Subjects | Mechatronics Control Equipment’s | Mechatronics Engineering

MECHATRONICS

MECHATRONICS BASICS:

01- mechatronics

          Mechatronics, which is also called mechatronic engineering, is a multidisciplinary branch of engineering that focuses on the engineering of both electrical and mechanical systems, and also includes a combination of robotics, electronics, computer, telecommunications, systems, control, and product engineering. As technology advances over time, various subfields of engineering have succeeded in both adapting and multiplying. The intention of mechatronics is to produce a design solution that unifies each of these various subfields. Originally, the field of mechatronics was intended to be nothing more than a combination of mechanics and electronics, hence the name being a portmanteau of mechanics and electronics; however, as the complexity of technical systems continued to evolve, the definition had been broadened to include more technical areas. The word mechatronics originated in Japanese-English and was created by Tetsuro Mori, an engineer of Yaskawa Electric Corporation. The word mechatronics was registered as trademark by the company in Japan with the registration number of “46-32714” in 1971. However, afterward the company released the right of using the word to public, the word begun being used across the world. Nowadays, the word is translated into many languages and the word is considered as an essential term for industry. “Approach aiming at the synergistic integration of mechanics, electronics, control theory, and computer science within product design and manufacturing, in order to improve and/or optimize its functionality”. Many people treat mechatronics as a modern buzzword synonymous with robotics and electromechanical engineering.

DEVOLOPMENT OF MECHATRONICS:

01- evaluation of mechatronics system

           A mechatronics engineer unites the principles of mechanics, electronics, and computing to generate a simpler, more economical and reliable system. The term “mechatronics” was coined by Tetsuro Mori, the senior engineer of the Japanese company Yaskawa in 1969. An industrial robot is a prime example of a mechatronics system; it includes aspects of electronics, mechanics, and computing to do its day-to-day jobs.

Engineering cybernetics deals with the question of control engineering of mechatronic systems. It is used to control or regulate such a system (see control theory). Through collaboration, the mechatronic modules perform the production goals and inherit flexible and agile manufacturing properties in the production scheme. Modern production equipment consists of mechatronic modules that are integrated according to a control architecture. The most known architectures involve hierarchy, polyarchy, heterarchy, and hybrid. The methods for achieving a technical effect are described by control algorithms, which might or might not utilize formal methods in their design. Hybrid systems important to mechatronics include production systems, synergy drives, planetary exploration rovers, automotive subsystems such as anti-lock braking systems and spin-assist, and everyday equipment such as autofocus cameras, video, hard disks, and CD players.

CONTROL EQUIPMENTS OF MECHATRONICS SYSTEM

  • Actuators and sensors
  • Signals and conditioning
  • Digital logic systems
  • Software and data acquisition systems
  • Computers and display devices.

ACTUATORS AND SENSORS

01-sensor_actuator
    Sensors and actuators mostly come under mechanical system. The actuators produce some action or cause motion. The sensors detect the state of system parameters, inputs, and outputs. the various actuators used in mechatronic system are pneumatic or hydraulic actuators, electro mechanical actuators, electrical motors such as DC motor, AC motor, stepper motors, servo motor, and piezo electric system, are linear and rotational sensor, acceleration sensor, force, torque, pressure sensor, temperature sensor, proximity sensors, light sensor.

SIGNALS AND CONDITIONING

01-signals and conditioning
                 The mechatronic system deal with two types of signals and conditioning such as input and output. the various input signal conditioning devices used in mechatronic system are discrete circuits amplifier A/D convertors, D/D convertors.

DIGITAL LOGIC SYSTEM

                 Digital logic devices control overall system operations the various digital logic system used in mechatronic system are logic circuits, micro controller, programmable logic controllers, sequencing and timing controls.

SOFTWARE AND DATA ACQUISTION SYSTEM

01-Schematics-of-the-data-acquisition-system-software
Data acquisition system acquires the output signals from sensor in the form of voltage. frequency, resistance, etc. and it is inputted into the microprocessor or computer. software is used to control the acquisition of data through DAC board.

COMPUTERS AND DISPLAY DEVICES

01-display devices
Computers are used to store large no of data and process further through software. Display devices are used to visual feedback to the user. The various display device used in mechatronic system are LEDs, CRT, LCD, Digital display etc.

Microprocessor Control System|Microprocessor and Microcontroller

MICROPROCESSOR BASED CONTROL SYSTEM

Microprocessor definition:

01-computer processors photo

microprocessor are essential for many of the products we use every day such as TVs cars, radio, home appliance, and computers.  microprocessor based controls also called microcontrollers. microcontroller is a digital integrated circuits which serves as a heart of many modern control applications.

microprocessor and microcontrollers are similar but the architecture of the both differs in the applications domains. microprocessor are employed for high speed applications such as desktop and laptop computers whereas the microcontroller are employed in automations and control applications such as microwave ovens, automatic washing machines, dish washers, engine management system, DVD players etc.

microcontrollers are embedded inside some other devices so that they can control the features or actions of the product. therefore , it is also called embedded controller.

A microcontroller generally has the main CPU core, ROM/EPROM / RAM and some accessory such as timers , pulse width modulators , A/D converter and I/O controller all integrated into one chip, micro controller is a computer on a chip that is programed to perform almost any control, sequencing , monitoring, and display function.

01-Flow chart of microprocessor based control system

EXAMPLES OF MICROPROCESSOR BASED CONTROL SYSTEM:

AUTOMATIC FILM CAMARA:

01- automatic film cemara

the automatic camera using film has the features of automatic focusing and exposer. the basic elements of the microprocessor based control system used in as automatic film camera for focusing and exposure.

the working of auto focusing aperture control for auto-exposer is explained as follows.

AUTO FOCUSING:

01-microprocessor in atomtic focusing camara

The auto focusing is achieve by using range sensor. when the system is switch on to activation mode,the camera is pointed at the object to take the snap. the microprocessor takes the input signal from the range sensor. this signal is processed  to send the output signal to the lens position drive to move the lens for achieving auto focusing. The microprocessor gets the feedback signal about the lens positions from the range sensor which is the used to modify the lens positions to get the desired positing of focus.

APETRTURE CONTROL FOR AUTO EXPOSURE:

01-aperture and shutter priority modes

the light sensor is used to achieve an aperture control for auto-exposer. when the shutter switch is pressed to the initial position , the microprocessor calculates the shutter speed and aperture settings based on the input from a light sensor. it the gives output signal to the viewer finder. when the shutter switch is pressed to the final position, the microprocessor gives signal to the aperture control drive to open the shutter to the required position. the shutter is kept open for the preset amount of time and then it is closed. after photograph has been taken, the microprocessor sends an output signal to the motor drive to advance the film for the next snap.