## What is 2G Technology | Second Generation Wireless Technology | Digital Radio Signals

2G refers to second generation wireless telecommunication technology. While its predecessor, 1G, made use of analog radio signals, 2G uses digital radio signals. Based on what type of multiplexing (the process of combining multiple digital data streams into one signal) is employed, 2G technologies may be categorized by whether they are based on time division…

## What is 2.5G Technology | Second And A Half Generation

2.5G, which stands for “second and a half generation,” is a cellular wireless technology developed in between its predecessor, 2G, and its successor, 3G. “2.5G” is an informal term, invented solely for marketing purposes, unlike “2G” or “3G” which are officially defined standards based on those defined by the International Telecommunication (ITU). The term “2.5G”…

## Terms in Engineering Measurements

Calibration: If a known input is given to the measurement system the output deviates from the given input, the corrections are made in the instrument and then the output is measured. This process is called “Calibration”. Sensitivity: Sensitivity is the ratio of change in the output signal to the change in the input signal. Readability:…

## Errors | Errors in Measurement | Absolute Error | Relative Error | Causes Of Calibration

Errors in Measurement : Error = Measured Value – True Value Em = Vm – Vt 1. Absolute Error :             True absolute error : = Result of measurement – True Value             Apparent Absolute error : = Result of measurement – Arithmetic Value 2. Relative error : It is defined as the results of…

## FMEA | Failure Mode And Effect Analysis | Terms In Failure | FMEA Process | FMEA Flow Diagram | FMECA | Failure Mode, Effects and Criticality Analysis

Failure Mode – A particular way in which an item fails, independent of the reason for failure.  Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) – A procedure by which each credible failure mode of each item from a low indenture level to the highest is analyzed to determine the effects on the system and to classify…

## CRITICALITY | Introduction | Types | Qualitative Analysis | Quantitative Analysis

CRITICALITY is a measure of the frequency of occurrence of an effect. – May be based on qualitative judgement or – May be based on failure rate data (most common) Qualitative analysis: –Used when specific part or item failure rates are not available. Quantitative analysis: –Used when sufficient failure rate data is available to calculate…

## Reliability | Reliability Analysis | Methods | Failure Rate | Mean Time Between Failures | MTBF | Failure Mode Effective Analysis | FMEA

It is defined as the probability that a given system will perform it’s function adequately for it’s specified period of lifetime under specified operating conditions. Common measures are : 1. Failure rate. 2. Mean time between failures(MTBF) 3. Survival percentage. Failure Rate: Rate which components of population fail. R(t)=Ns(t)/Nf(t) Where, Ns(t)- No. of components that…

## ENGINEERING METROLOGY | BASIC CONCEPTS OF MEASUREMENTS | METHODS | TERMS OF MEASUREMENT

MEASUREMENTS: A Measurement is the outcome of an opinion formed by observers about some physical quantity. CLASSIFICATION OF MEASUREMENTS: Standards –  ( Reproduce the value of given quantity ) Fixed Gauges – (Check Dimensions) Measuring Instruments – (Determine the measured value) NEEDS FOR MEASUREMENT: 1. To Determine the true dimensions of a part. 2. To…

## Programming Systems | CNC programming Basics | G-Code | M-Code | Incremental and Absolute Programming System | Interpolation | Linear Interpolation | Circular Interpolation

Interpolation The method by which contouring machine tools move from one programmed point to the next is called interpolation. This ability to merge individual axis points into a predefined tool path is built into most of today’s MCUs. There are five methods of interpolation: linear circular helical parabolic cubic All contouring controls provide linear interpolation,…

## Programming Systems | CNC programming Basics | G-Code | M-Code | Incremental and Absolute Programming System

Two types of programming modes, the incremental system and the absolute system, are used for CNC. Both systems have applications in CNC programming, and no system is either right or wrong all the time. Most controls on machine tools today are capable of handling either incremental or absolute programming.   Incremental program locations are always…

## Computer Numerical Control | CNC | What Is CNC | How CNC Works | Programming Basics

The term numerical control is a widely accepted and commonly used term in the machine tool industry. Numerical control (NC) enables an operator to communicate with machine tools through a series of numbers and symbols. NC which quickly became Computer Numerical Control (CNC) has brought tremendous changes to the metalworking industry. New machine tools in…