BioMechanical Engineering | BioMechanics | BioMechanical Analysis | BioMechanics Introduction

In the 1960s and 1970s, biomechanics was developed. The content of biomechanics was extracted from mechanics, an area of physics that consists of the study of motion and the effect of forces on an object. Mechanics is used by engineers to design and build structures and machines because it provides the tools for analyzing the strength of structures and ways of predicting and measuring the movement of a machine. It was a natural transition to take the tools of mechanics and apply them to living organisms.

01-biomechanical analysis-Gait Analysis-motion capture system

Biomechanics was defined by the American Society of Biomechanics (1) as the application of the laws of mechanics to animate motion.

Another definition proposed by the European Society of Biomechanics (2) is the study of forces acting on and generated within a body and the effects of these forces on the tissues, fluid, or materials used for the diagnosis, treatment, or research purposes.

01-human movement analysis-biomechanics vs Kinesiology-kinematics vs kinetics

Biomechanical Engineering is a branch of human biomechanics using mechanical, mathematical, and biological definitions and concepts. Its focus on fundamental human activities develops advanced analytical skills and provides a unique and valuable approach that facilitates mastery of a body of information and a method of analysis applicable to further study and research in human movement.

01-biomechanics-study of human motion-quantitative analysis-kinematics analysis-kinetic analysis-anatomical movements

This Study based on principles of biomechanics and then continues into more advanced study involving the mechanical and mathematical bases for a range of fundamental human activities and their variations, including

  • Balance,
  • Slipping,
  • Falling,
  • Landing,
  • Walking,
  • Running,
  • Object manipulation,
  • Throwing,
  • Striking,
  • Catching,
  • Climbing,
  • Swinging,
  • Jumping, and
  • Airborne maneuvers.

Each activity is analyzed using a specific seven-point format that helps readers identify the biomechanical concepts that explain how the movements are made and how they can be modified to correct problems.

The seven points for analysis are

  • Aim,
  • Mechanics,
  • Biomechanics,
  • Variations,
  • Enhancement,
  • Safety, and
  • Practical examples that move from the simple to the more complex.

01-kinematic movement analysis-biomechanical analysis-linear motion analysis

A biomechanical analysis evaluates the motion of a living organism and the effect of forces on the living organism. The biomechanical approach to movement analysis can be qualitative, with movement observed and described, or quantitative, meaning that some aspect of the movement will be measured. The use of the term biomechanics in this text incorporates qualitative components with a more specific quantitative approach. In such an approach, the motion characteristics of a human or an object are described using such parameters as speed and direction; how the motion is created through application of forces, both inside and outside the body; and the optimal body positions and actions for efficient, effective motion.

For example, to biomechanically evaluate the motion of rising from a chair, one attempts to measure and identify joint forces acting at the hip, knee, and ankle along with the force between the foot and the floor, all of which act together to produce the movement up out of the chair.

SolidWorks COSMOS Use | SolidWorks COSMOS Analysis | Plastics Application | Elastomer Application | Metal-Forming Applications

Plastics Application:

01-plastics application-optimization of design-snap fit simulation-solidworks-sustainablity

Household appliances, medical devices, electrical fittings among others incorporate numerous plastic product designs that need critical design validation to meet functional requirements. COSMOS finds extensive use in validating plastic product designs for functional efficiency and optimal usage of materials.

Capabilities of COSMOS include:

  • Snap-fit simulation for stresses and deflections
  • Limit load analysis of critical load bearing components
  • Strength calculations of reinforced plastics
  • Kinematic analysis of actuation systems and mechanisms
  • Optimization of designs for least cost and weight

Elastomer Applications:

01-elastomer applications-contact pitch calculations-rotating race Car wheel-Navier Stokes Simulation

Elastomers such as rubber require special treatment due to material non-linear behavior, COSMOS provides a rich set of resources for accurately modeling real-world problems involving high geometric and material non-linearities. Applications of COSMOS in non-linear domain are wide ranging.

Some of the functionalities include:

  • Seal behavior subjected to pre-stress due to assembly and operational loading
  • Inflation of tyres with steel / Nylon chord reinforcements
  • Assembly and operational strains in boots, bellows, gaskets, door-seals, bushings, mounts and other visco-elastic materials
  • On-road condition simulation of wheel-tyre assembly, for contact patch calculations and wheel radial fatigue life
  • Contact Stress analysis of seals subjected to pressure, temperature and frictional effects

Metal Forming Applications:

01-Sheet Metal Forming Simulation-Hot Forming-roll forming-Stretch and Deep Drawing-tube bending-hydro forming

COSMOS enables users to simulate elasto-plastic deformations of metals subjected to contact and large strains, within the realm of implicit integration.

Some of the applications include:

  • Forging of cylindrical billets
  • Sheet-metal drawing of simple geometries
  • Roll forming of metal sections