Wet Sump Lubrication System | Types of Wet Sump Lubrication System

Wet sump lubrication system

This system consists of a large storing capacity of oil at base of the crank chamber. From the sump the oil is drawn by the pump and applied to various parts of the engine. Excess oil after serving the purpose will gradually return to the sump.

Splash type lubrication

This type of lubrication is generally used in some small four-stroke engines. In its construction a cap is present on the big end of the connecting rod which consists of a scoop. When the connecting rod is at the lowest position, the scoop gets dipped into the oil, thus it directs the oil into the holes present in the bearing. Due to the splash of the scoop oil reaches the lower position of the cylinder walls, crankshaft and other parts which requires lubrication. Oil level inside the pump is maintained a pump which takes oil from the sump through a filter.

01 - splash system lubrication - wet sump lubrication

It is suitable for low and medium speed engines, which is generally having moderate bearing load pressure. This system does not serve properly for high speed engines, which normally operates at high bearing pressure.


In this system oil is pumped from oil sump and it is distributed to various parts requiring lubrication. The oil is drawn from the oil sump through a filter and it is pumped by means of gear pump. Here oil is delivered at a pressure of 1.5 bar to 4 bar.

01 - Pressure type lubricaion - wet sump lubrication

The oil with pressure is supplied to the main bearing in the crankshaft and camshaft. Holes drilled through the main crankshafts bearing journals, communicate oil to big end bearing and also small end bearings through holes drilled in the connecting rods. Generally a pressure gauge will be provided to confirm the circulation of oil to various parts. On the delivery side a pressure regulation valve is provided, to prevent the excessive pressure.

The general arrangement of wet sump lubrication system is shown in the figure. In this case oil is always contained in the sump which is drawn by the pump through a strainer.


This method is a combination of both splash and pressure system. It incorporates the advantage of both splash and pressure system. In this system the main supply of oil is located in the base of the crank chamber. Through a filter oil is drawn from the lower portion of the sump and at a pressure of 1 bar it is delivered by means of a gear pump. Through a nozzle spray the big bearing ends are lubricated. Thus oil also lubricates the cam, crankshaft bearings, cylinder walls and timing gears. With the help of oil pressure gauge the oil supply is controlled. This system is less costly to install. It enables high bearing loads and engine speed to be employed as compared to splash system.

Rough Grinding Machines | Types of Rough Grinders

Rough grinding machine

Rough grinding machines are generally used to remove a large amount of material from the work piece.in this type of grinding the surface finish is not good rough grinding are generally used to remove the sprue from the casting product, to grind the projections, to surface the weldments and sharpening the hand tools.

Floor stand grinder

Floor Stand grinder is also known as pedestal grinder. This type of grinder has a pedestal or a stand which is fixed with the floor. The grinder has a horizontal spindle with wheels at both the ends.


Usually the driving motor is placed inside the pedestal. The motor is connected to the spindle by means of a belt. The abrasive wheels are covered by guards. A work rest table is provided for supporting the work piece during the grinding process. A shield is provided which is fitted with the guard for the protection of the eyes. This type of grinders are normally are used for rough grinding of tools and other small parts.

Bench Grinder


This type of grinders is generally mounted on a bench and is smaller in size. To grinding wheels are connected to both the ends of the motors. One wheel is aluminum oxide and the other wheel is silicon carbide. These wheels are covered by guards. A work rest is provided for supporting the work piece while grinding. These grinders are mainly used for grinding hand tools and small parts.

Portable Grinder


A portable grinder is a small grinder which is used for grinding by hand. It can be carried from place to place. It has a small electric motor. A small grinding wheel is attached to one end of the motor. The motor is supplied with power by a long wire connected to the mains using a plug. It is used for rough grinding of large forgings and welded projections.

Abrasive belt Grinder


An abrasive belt grinder has an endless abrasive belt running on pulleys. The abrasive belt has very small abrasive grains pasted on one side of the belt. Generally the driving motor is connected to the bottom pulley. The work piece is positioned on the table and it is fed by means of hand against the moving abrasive belt. This grinder is also used for rough grinding of work piece. Generally, here dimensional accuracy is not important.

Swing frame grinder


This type of grinder has a horizontal frame which is 2 to 3 meters in length. The frame is suspended in the middle. This frame is can swing about its point of suspension. One end of the frame usually carries the grinding wheel which is attached to the motor. The other end of the frame carries a dead balancing weight. A handle is provided at the wheel end.


By using this handle the operator can apply the wheel on the work piece for rough grinding. This grinder is generally used for uneven grinding of large castings and forgings. The grinder is generally suspended from a crane and the crane can be moved anywhere to the work piece.