Single Spindle Automatic Lathe | Construction and Working of Single Spindle Automatic Lathe


A single spindle automatic lathe is a modified form of turret lathe. These machines have an addition to a 6-station turret, a maximum of 4 cross slides. These cross slides are operated by disc cams. The cams are mounted on a shaft which draws the power from the main spindle through a set of gears called cyclic time change gears. Turret operation is also synchronized with the cross slide operation and is driven by another cam called main cam.

The tools used on the cross slides are usually form tools and are plunged into the work piece at the desired feed rate. The tools used in the turret may be turning tool, drilling tools etc. It is general to use more than one tool on a turret station. External threading is usually carried out by a thread chasing attachment. Internal threads are made using taps.

It can be performed in an automatic lathe with the help of special attachments. This is one of the owing features of automatic lathe. The reduction in number of set ups and total machining time enables the parts to be produced at an economical cost in an automatic lathe. For of their application to manufacture screws at low cost, these are called screw cutting machines.

The lathe has a geared headstock. The headstock has one slow speed and one fast speed. The spindle speed is changed with the help of the trip dogs provided on the drum.

At the end of the bed, a square turret is mounted. The travel of the turret slide is achieved by the adjustable cam drum. The turret indexed to the next at the end of each stroke.

Two cross slides are situated between the headstock and the turret. One cross slide is at the front and the other at the rear side. The cross slide have self-governing movements. The movement of the cross slide is independently organized by cam. Overlapping of operations by the tool in the turret and the tools in cross slide can be done. The correct feed for each machining operation can be automatically selected by the feed selector pins on the drum.

01 - single spindle automatic lathe - parts of automatic lathe

Working Principle

The bar stock is held in the rotating spindle by a collet chuck. Headstock slides along the bed ways with the rotating bar stock.

This headstock movement gives longitudinal feed to the work. All the tools in the tool slides take material from the work piece at the same time. Tool in the feed base mounting may also do operations like drilling. The headstock slides back to the original position after the machining process. One revolution of the camshaft manufactures one component.

Most of the turning and forming operations are done by the tools held on the front and rear tool slides. The vertical tool slides are mainly used for undercutting, chamfering, knurling and cutting off.


· It is used to manufacture precision turning of small parts.

· It has many tool slides.

· Wide range of speed is available.

· It is rigid in construction.

· Simple design of can is enough.

· Many working stations are available.

· Micrometer tool setting is possible.

Planner Machine | Parts of a Planer Machine


      In Planner, the work piece mounted on the table reciprocates but the tool is stationary. A single point cutting tool is used for machining the work surface. This tool is always positioned vertically the tool holder which moves on a cross-rail while feeding. Planer is mainly used for machining large and heavy work pieces. The machined surface may be horizontal, vertical or inclined surface.


a. Double-housing planer


The double planer consists of the following parts

1. Bed

     The bed is very strong and rigid of box type which is made by casting process. The bed length is finished twice the length of table with ‘V’ guide ways.

    The table is mounted over the bed which houses numerous mechanisms. Cross ribs are used to rise the strength of the bed.

2. Table

    It is also a box type structure which reciprocates on the bed guide ways. It is also having ‘T’ slots as that of shaper for clamping the work piece.

3. Columns

    The two long structural member along with guide ways provided on both sides of the member. The two long columns linked by a cross rail and cross beam. The cross rail moves on the guide ways. It carries feed mechanism and power transmission links.

4. Cross rail

    It is a rigid structural member mounted between two columns and slides on the guide ways already provided on the columns. The cross-rail can be fixed or fastened at any height. It moves tool heads.

5. Tool heads

    Maximum four tool heads can be mounted on the planer. Two on the cross rail and the other two are on the guide ways of both the columns. It may tilt to any essential angle.

b.Open Side Planer

01 - parts of open side planer - open side planer

    The only difference in this type is that only one vertical column is provided on one side of the bed and other side is left free. So, large and heavier jobs can be mounted on the table. The construction and working principle are same as that of a double housing planer.

c.Pit planer

   The working principle of this planer is same as that of other types of planer. But the table of the planner is kept in a pit as the floor coincides with the top surface of the table. So heavy and large work can be held and machined easily.

d.Divided Table Planer

01 - divided table planer - parts of divided table planer

   The working principle is similar to that of a standard planer. But it has two reciprocating tables. Generally, the time required to set the work on the planer is more. To reduce the setting time of work, the two same machining are combined by using two tables.

    When the first job is machining, that first table will be only reciprocated and the second table is stationary. On that time, the setting of work can be carried out. After machining the first workpiece, the table is taken to rest and next one work is set on it. On that time, the second table is in machining operation.

e.Edge Planer

01 - parts of edge planer - edge planer

   In this type of edge planer, the bed and table are stationary and the tool head is mounted on a carriage. The carriage can be moved longitudinally on guide ways. A platform is provided to stand and travel along with it while machining. It is mainly used for machining the edges of steel plates.