Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT, USA) is credited with pioneering the development in both CAD and CAM. The need to meet the design and manufacturing requirements of aerospace industries after the Second World War necessitated the development these technologies.
Computer Integrated Manufacturing (CIM) encompasses the entire range of product development and manufacturing activities with all the functions being carried out with the help of dedicated software packages. The data required for various functions are passed from one application software to another in a seamless manner.
Throughout the history of our industrial society, many inventions have been patented and whole new technologies have evolved. Perhaps the single development that has impacted manufacturing more quickly and significantly than any previous technology is the digital computer. Computers are being used increasingly for both design and detailing of engineering components in the drawing office.
Mechatronics, which is also called mechatronic engineering, is a multidisciplinary branch of engineering that focuses on the engineering of both electrical and mechanical systems, and also includes a combination of robotics, electronics, computer, telecommunications, systems, control, and product engineering. As technology advances over time, various subfields of engineering have succeeded in both adapting and multiplying. The intention of mechatronics is to produce a design solution that unifies each of these various subfields. Originally, the field of mechatronics was intended to be nothing more than a combination of mechanics and electronics, hence the name being a portmanteau of mechanics and electronics; however, as the complexity of technical systems continued to evolve, the definition had been broadened to include more technical areas.
microprocessor are essential for many of the products we use every day such as TVs cars, radio, home appliance, and computers. microprocessor based controls also called microcontrollers. microcontroller is a digital integrated circuits which serves as a heart of many modern control applications.
microprocessor and microcontrollers are similar but the architecture of the both differs in the applications domains. microprocessor are employed for high speed applications such as desktop and laptop computers whereas the microcontroller are employed in automations and control applications such as microwave ovens, automatic washing machines, dish washers, engine management system, DVD players etc.
In many situation, various operations of a plant or process take place in a particular order. A sequential control system involve the sequential execution of well- defined operations that are performed in a prescribed order. Each operations or activity is called step. Each step may be an open or closed loop continues process or even a sequential sub- process. For example, while using automatic camera, the various basic steps in a sequence are switch on, battery check, auto- focus the image, auto flash on/off, taking the image, saving the image and then switching off the camera.
Each step of the prescribed sequence usually requires a switching of the equipment configuration and it may be triggered by time or an event(push of a button, completion of early task etc.).
An automatic control system is a pre-set closed loop control system that requires no operator action. Most of the closed-loop control systems are automatic in nature. It assumes that the process remains in the normal range for the control system. Various applications of automatic control systems are explained below.
Ignition Lag or Delay Period:
It is the duration between the occurrence of the spark at the spark plug and the duration of the combustion curve from the motor curve. Factors influencing this phase are:
Nature of fuel
Temperature of the flame between the spark plug electrodes
Non Destructive Testing (NDT) is a method of testing the material’s characteristics such as physical, chemical and structural components to perform their function in a cost effective way. In this, components are examined / evaluated without destroy / damage of the product. NDT tests conducted in the parts aren’t damage the raw materials as such happened in destructive methods and it guaranteeing the safe operation of the parts. NDT is no way alters the components in any type of inspection. NDT is carried out widely for the conditioning monitoring (industrial inspections) of the plants such as aerospace, automobile, manufacturing and construction.
Pneumatic conveying systems can be classified on different basis of consideration. These basis are listed below:
On average particle concentration (modes)
On air pressure (Types of systems)
On air supply arrangement
On solid feeder type
Of these, the first two are very important and often influence the choice of the specific design for a given material, loading and delivery condition and the distance to be covered.
The basic Principles of Pneumatic conveying stated by Great Alexander in 100 BC itself. In pre historical age Romans used Water supply pipelines and sewage disposable systems. Chinese conveyed Natural gas through Bamboo’s. These are the evidence for transporting physical objects in Pneumatic tubes.
Objects of Lubrication: Primary: To reduce friction between moving parts so as to reduce Power loss Wear of the moving parts Secondary: To provide cooling effect To provide cushioning effect To provide cleaning action To provide sealing action Purpose of Lubrication: To reduce friction To cool down moving parts To prevent corrosion (component wear from…