Industrial Bucket Elevators | Vertical Bucket Conveyors | Bucket Elevator Types

Types of bucket elevators:

Bucket elevators are classified into three types. They classified according to the bucket spacing and mode of discharge. They are:

1. Centrifugal Discharge elevators

2. Continuous Discharge elevators

3. Positive Discharge Elevators


Centrifugal Discharge Elevators:

In a centrifugal discharge elevator, buckets are fixed on to belt or chain at regular pitch to avoid interference in loading and discharge. This type of elevators is mostly vertical in operation and can handle practically any free flowing fine or small lumpy materials. The material is fed into the boot of the elevator and scooped up by the buckets as they pass round the bottom pulley or sprocket. The material is discharged by centrifugal force as the buckets pass over the head or sprocket.

These elevators operate at higher speeds than other types. Speed range is 70 to 125 m/min.

In a centrifugal elevator buckets are loaded by the scooping of the buckets at the boot. Hence such elevators are used for relatively fine free flowing materials. Otherwise the buckets will be damaged frequently. Usually lump size larger than 50mm are not used for these types of elevators. On the other hand, it is also necessary to check that the materials are not finer than 200 mesh size. (Materials finer than 200 mesh are often aerated and cause wastage and jamming problems.


1. Grain,

2. Coal,

3. Sand,

4. Clay,

5. Sugar and

6. Dry Chemicals.

01-types of bucket elevator - centrifugal discharge bucket elevator - continuous discharge bucket elevator

Continuous Discharge Elevator:

In a continuous discharge elevator, buckets are mounted without any gap on a chain or belt. This type of elevator often used for handling larger lumps of material that may be difficult to convey by centrifugal type. The buckets used with this type of elevator are given such a shape that the belt or chain passes over the head wheel, the flanged end of the preceding bucket acts as a chute to lead the material to the discharge spout. These elevators operate at a speed range of 30 to 50 m/min, which is much slower than that of the centrifugal discharge type. Continuous discharge elevators are not fed by the scooping action of the buckets through the heap of material. A loading leg effects, feeding of material. The slow speed and gentle method of loading and discharging makes this type of elevator suitable for fragile, fluffy or pulverised materials. It can operate in the vertical or inclined condition.


1. Lime,

2. Cement and

3. Dry chemicals

01-continuous discharge bucket elevator

Positive Discharge Elevators:

This type of elevators is similar to the centrifugal discharge elevator except for two distinguishing features. The buckets are spaced at regular pitch and mounted on two strands of chains, and are provided with a snub wheel under the head sprockets to ensure inverting of the bucket for complete discharge. The speed of the bucket is slow in the range of 35 – 40 m/min.

This type of elevators is used for handling light, fluffy, dusty and sticky materials. The feeding is done by the scooping or digging by the buckets.

01-positive discharge bucket elevator - types of bucket elevator

Gorilla Glass Manufacturing Process | Gorilla Glass Strength Test | Gorilla Glass Molding

Touch screen technology in fast few years has grown drastically in various applications, in order to overcome the difficulties faced by the touch screen; a new frontier technology has to take its part to revitalize the use of touch screen. In this counterpart gorilla glass has thrown a flash light focus on touch screen technology. Gorilla Glass has taken an apt plays in touchscreen technology. This scratch repellent glass is used to form touchscreen panel for portable gadgets like ATM machines, android mobile phones, tablets, personal computers and MP3 Players. It’s designed to protect display screens from scratches, sticky oils, fractures, etc,.

MOnA- RHP-Sunbeam

Process 1: Melting the glass

  • The Silicon Dioxide is mixed with other chemicals then put into a furnace to be melted
  • Oxygen and Hydrogen injected into the furnace to increase the heat transfer making the material melt faster
  • Resulting glass(Alumino – Silicate) Contains Aluminium , Silicon, Oxygen , Sodium ions

01-Basic Glass Structure

Process 2: Mold the Glasses

  • The molten glass is poured into the desired die and the required shape and thickness obtained.

Process 3: Ion Exchange

01-Gorilla Glass ion Exchange - Gorilla Glass Strengthening Process

Manufacturing Process:

Gorilla glass starts as a mix of pure sand (silicon dioxide) and naturally occurring chemicals (resulting glass is termed as alumino-silicate) which splits the impurities and melting the sand. The molten glass fills up the bin and it is overflowed on each facet. During this “fusion draw” method, the resulting molten glass is pull down by a robust process to a long of 0.59 millimetre-thick sheets of Alumino-silicate Glass.

01-Gorilla Glass manufacturing Process - How is Gorilla Glass made

At this point, you have some very huge sheets of clear, clean, pure glass, however it’s not much stronger than regular glass. Gorilla gets its strength through a noteworthy action. Currently the glass sheet is dipped each into a molten salt bath where a chemical exchange happens. Potassium ions are infused into the glass. At the similar time, sodium ions exit from the glass compound. Here the potassium (K) ions are larger than the sodium (Na) ions. So a compressive stress occurs. That stress is really an honest factor and stops the glass from breaking on flaws.

01-Gorilla Glass Sodium and Potassium Bath - Gorilla Glass Strengthening Process

Chemical Strengthening Process:

Chemical tempering strengthens the glass by putting the surface of the glass into compression by “stuffing” larger sized ions into the glass surface. During chemical tempering method, the glass is submersed in a bath of molten salt at prescribed temperatures. The heat causes the smaller ions to depart the surface of the glass and bigger ions present within the molten salts to enter it. Once the glass is off from the bath and cooled, they shrink. The larger ions that are currently present within the surface of the lens are crowded along. This creates a compressed surface, which results in stronger glass that’s more resistant to breakage.

01-Gorilla Glass strength test - Gorilla Glass Stress Test

Achieving the specified compressive stress characteristics is time/temperature dependent. Gorilla glass, in contrast to most soda lime glasses, is not self limiting thorough of layer, thus smart time/temperature management is important for a stable method. Although Gorilla glass could also be chemically tempered at temperatures up to 460°C (Temperature vary between 390°C and 420°C) with the target salt temperature maintained to +/- 2°C. Tempering time should be controlled at intervals +/- 5 min.

01-Gorilla Glass test - Gorilla Glass tensile Strength

Fluorosilane coating:

As people’s lives become busier and workplaces transcend the boundaries of office walls, the demand for mobile technologies continues to grow. With this transformation comes the need for a cover glass that promotes clarity while, also protecting and promoting the lifespan of display devices. The primary objective for development of this coating has been to enable the continued ability of a coated glass surface to exhibit superior optical clarity and mechanical reliability, service life, and, most importantly, the glass surface must function for its purpose.

By applying Fluorosilane coating over the glass sheets prevent fingerprint appearance and enable ease of fingerprint removal from the everyday products like Dirt, Oil, Soap, Lotion, Butter, Ketchup etc. Now the coating improves the clarity and optical performance better than soda lime glass.

01-Gorilla Glass Oleophobic Coating - Gorilla glass Fluorosilane coating

The latest generation of Gorilla Glass is claimed to be 20% thinner, and more responsive to touchscreen commands than its predecessor. This implies that the screen pictures are probably brighter and slimmer line in style.

Gorilla Glass’s development coincided somewhat fortunately with the increase of the touch-screen smartphone; the best example is arguably the iPhone. However, handsets are only the beginning. The product / merchandise is experimenting with more thin and flexible sheets, and printing on glass to be used on custom – built laptops, Liquid Crystal Display Televisions et al.