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Solidworks Exercise 1

01-a rod support-solidworks design

Solidworks Exercise 201-a shaft support - solidworks drawing

Solidworks Exercise 301-rod support - solidworks edrawings


Solidworks Exercise 401-shaft support - solidworks exercises

Solidworks Exercise 5

01-vertical shaft support - solidworks drafting

Rod / Shaft Support:

Shafts, too, are a basic, important and very common machine element. A shaft is usually designed to perform a specific task in a specific machine. In general, a rotating member used for the transmission of power is called shaft. A shaft known variously as a DRIVESHAFT, TAILSHAFT or CARDAN SHAFT (and sometimes as a JACK SHAFT). It is used to transmit power and torque from the rear of an automotive gearbox (on the left) to the input shaft of the differential, which is known as the PINION SHAFT (on the right).

E.g. Gears must be mounted on some sort of shaft, and a gate valve or globe valve is opened and closed by a hand-wheel turning another type of shaft often referred to as a spindle.

Different types of shafts are:

Stub shaft – A shaft which is integral with an engine, motor or prime mover and is of suitable size, shape and projection to allow its easy connection to other shafts.

Ex.: It allows a power-transmission device such as a belt pulley to be fitted to drive an external machine.

Line shaft (or power transmission shaft) – A shaft connected to a prime mover which transmits power to a number of machines – now mostly superseded by machines having individual motors.

Ex.:  The overhead LINE SHAFT ran continuously and individual machines could be stopped only by moving the flat drive belts from the driving pulley onto a free-running pulley. Note the largely timber construction of the building, allowing significant flexing of the structures under load.

Jack shaft – A short shaft used to connect a prime mover to a machine or another shaft. May also be a short shaft placed as an intermediate shaft between a prime mover and driven machine.

Ex.: Speed Reduction similar to gear drives.

Flexible shaft – Permits the transmission of power between two shafts (e.g. motor shaft and machine shaft) whose rotational axes are at an angle or where the angle between the shafts may change.

Ex.: Japanese style backpack mower with flexible shaft between the red power pack and the usual hand-held mower assembly. In general, flexible shafts are not used to transmit high powers or high speed.

Most shafts are made from steel, either low- or medium-carbon. However, high quality alloy steel, usually heat treated, may be chosen for critical applications. Small, light-duty shafts, e.g. in household appliances, may be injection moulded in a plastic material such as nylon or derlin. Other metals, e.g. brass, stainless steel or aluminium, may be used where corrosion is a problem or lightness is required.

The suspension of copper tubing presents a challenging problem in corrosion. If local corrosion conditions are severe due to acid fumes, extreme humidity, etc., copper plated steel is not satisfactory and special materials must be used. The threat of galvanic corrosion is mitigated. No electrical continuity between the pipe and support beam.

These flanged support blocks are specially developed for securing the shaft at right angles to the mounting surface. This Flanged supports made of spheroidal graphite cast iron with flanged liner sets.

Belt Conveyor Take Up Design | Conveyor Belt Take Up System | Horizontal Take Up In Belt Conveyor

Belt Conveyors for bulk materials:

Take up Arrangement:

All belt conveyors require the use of some form of take up device for the following reasons:

1. To ensure adequate tension of the belt leaving the drive pulley so us to avoid any slippage of the belt.

2. To ensure proper belt tension at the loading and other points along the conveyor.

3. To compensate for changes in belt length due to elongation.

4. To provide extra length of belt when necessary for splicing purpose.

01-belt-conveyor - belt conveyor for bulk materials

Usually there are two types of take up arrangements.

These are:

1. Fixed take up device that may be adjusted periodically by manual operation

2. Automatic take up device (constant load type)


Manual Screw Take Up:

The most commonly used manual take up is the screw take up. In a screw take up system the take up pulley rotates in two bearing blocks which may slide on stationery guide ways with the help of two screws. The tension is created by the two screws which are tightened and periodically adjusted with a spanner. It is preferable to use screws with trapezoidal thread to decrease the effort required to tighten the belt.

01-flat belt conveyor - gravity conveyor - rubber belt conveyor

The main problem with the use of manual take up is that it requires a vigilant and careful operator to observe when take up adjustment is required. Perfect tension adjustment with this system is also not possible. For these reason these devices are used only in case of short conveyors of up 60m length and light duty.


Automatic Take Up:

In automatic take up arrangement the take up pulley is mounted on slides or on a trolley which is pulled backwards by means of a steel rope and deflecting pulleys. The carriage travels on guide ways mounted parallel to the longitudinal axis of the conveyor, i.e., horizontally in horizontal conveyors (Ex.: Gravity type automatic take up arrangement) and at an incline in inclined conveyors. Hydraulic, Pneumatic and electrical take up devices are also used.

01-horizontal take up in belt conveyor -  conveyor belt loop take up

Automatic take up has the following features:

1. It is self adjusting and automatic

2. Greater take up movement is possible

01-steel belt conveyors -  material handling conveyors -  roller conveyor

For the perfect conveying of materials, adding a resistance with the peripheral forces on the driving pulley of a belt conveyor is important. Some of the resistances are:

1. The inertial and frictional resistance due to acceleration of the material at the loading area

2. Resistance due to friction on the side walls of the skirt board at the loading area.

3. Pulley bearing resistance applicable for other than the driving pulley

4. Resistance due to the wrapping of the belt on pulleys

5. Special resistances include

a. Resistance due to idler tilting

b. Resistance due to friction between material and skirt plate

c. Frictional resistance due to belt cleaners

d. Resistance due to friction at the discharge plough

Special resistances are usually small. Here the resistance due to idler tilting and skirt resistance is ignored. There being no discharge plough the resistance due to plough is ignored. For belt speeds greater than 3 m/s, the edge clearances are applicable.