Why is XRD Important? It’s useful for studying Crystal structure. This method have the details about Grain size (or) Crystal size Orientation of the crystal, Cold worked, Distorted and Internally stressed crystals Re-Crystallization Preferred orientation etc
A crystalline material is one in which the atoms are situated in a repeating (or) periodic array over large atomic distances.
Non Crystalline Materials:
Materials that do not crystallize are called non-crystalline (or) Amorphous materials
Finishing Operations In Manufacturing
Repressing the sintered component in a die to meet required tolerances.
Repressing the sintered component in a die to increase the density and to give additional strength.
What is sintering in powder metallurgy process?
The operation of heating the green compact at high temperature in a controlled atmosphere (Reducing atmosphere which protects oxidation of metal powders). The Sintering increases the bond between the particles and therefore strengthens a powder metal compact. Sintering temperature and time of sintering depends on the type of powders and the strength required in a final product. The Sintering temperatures usually 0.6 to 0.8 times the melting point of powders.
Some shapes are wider at the bottom than the top. This is called tapering. A tapering shape on its side is a wedge. It can be used to force even giant blocks apart. The great pyramids
A pyramid is a shape that has triangular sides meeting in a point. The great pyramids of Giza in Egypt are tombs for kings (pharaohs) that were built by the Ancient Egyptians over 3000 years ago.
Look at the room you are sitting in. You will see a wide variety of shapes that are strong enough to be pulled, squashed, bent, twisted, hit or dropped.
The walls of your room may be made of building blocks, stacked together. Each block has an oblong or rectangular, shape..
Your body has to be made of strong shapes as well. Feel your arms and legs. They are long and round, similar to rods, or cylinders. Now feel your head. It is round in every direction, roughly ball-shaped or a sphere.
Non Destructive Testing (NDT) is a method of testing the material’s characteristics such as physical, chemical and structural components to perform their function in a cost effective way. In this, components are examined / evaluated without destroy / damage of the product. NDT tests conducted in the parts aren’t damage the raw materials as such happened in destructive methods and it guaranteeing the safe operation of the parts. NDT is no way alters the components in any type of inspection. NDT is carried out widely for the conditioning monitoring (industrial inspections) of the plants such as aerospace, automobile, manufacturing and construction.
When all of the activities of the modern manufacturing plants are considered as a whole, it is impossible to think that a small portion might be automated, let alone trying to envisage automation of the whole.
In systems approach, a large and complex system with interacting components are analyzed and improved. The one who assigned with the responsibility of implementation of automation for complex system is advised to implement a technique similar to the traditional systems approach.
There are nine major elements of a CIM system are:
2. Product Design
5. Manufacturing Engineering
6. Factory Automation Hardware
9. Information Management