Augmented Reality


Augmented Reality (AR) is a new technology that involves the overlay of computer graphics on the real world. AR is within a more general context termed Mixed Reality (MR), which refers to a multi-axis spectrum of areas that cover Virtual Reality (VR), AR, telepresence, and other related technologies.

Virtual Reality is a term used for computer generated 3D environments that allow the user to enter and interact with synthetic environments. The users are able to “immerse”  themselves to varying degrees in the computers artificial world which may either be a simulation of some form of reality or the simulation of a complex phenomenon.

In telepresence, the fundamental purpose is to extend operator’s sensory-motor facilities and problem solving abilities to a remote environment. In this sense, telepresence can be defined as a human/machine system in which the human operator receives sufficient information about the tele-operator and the task environment, displayed in a sufficiently natural way, that the operator feels physically present at the remote site. Very similar to virtual reality, in which we aim to achieve the illusion of presence within a computer simulation, telepresence aims to achieve the illusion of presence at a remote location.

AR can be considered a technology between VR and telepresence. While in VR the environment is completely synthetic and in telepresence it is completely real, in AR the user sees the real world augmented with virtual objects.

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Wearable devices, like Head-Mounted- Displays (HMD), could be used to show the augmented scene, but other technologies are also available.

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Scene Generator

The scene generator is the device or software responsible for rendering the scene.  Rendering is not currently one of the major problems in AR, because a few virtual objects need to be drawn, and they often do not necessarily have to be realistically rendered in order to serve the purposes of the application.

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When combining the real and virtual world two basic choices are available: optical and video technology. Each of them has some tradeoffs depending on factors like resolution, flexibility, field-of-view, registration strategies, among others.

AR Devices

Four major classes of AR can be distinguished by their display type: Optical See- Through, Virtual Retinal Systems, Video See-Through, Monitor Based AR and Projector Based AR.


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The Augmented Reality technology has many possible applications in a wide range of fields, including entertainment, education, medicine, engineering and manufacturing.

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Manufacturing Engineering Interview Questions And Answers | Placement Questions In Manufacturing Engineering | Placement Paper Pattern In Manufacturing

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  • What is OEE?

OEE means Overall Equipment Effectiveness. This terminology widely used in Total productive maintenance, which is used to calculate the effectiveness of machines in manufacturing. Basically it captures the losses of machines in production and try to improve defects on machines. Higher the OEE, more capable is the machine.

  • In automobile vehicle, power is transmitted from the gear box to the differential through
    1. Bevel gears
    2. Hooke’s joint
    3. Old ham’s coupling
    4. Knuckle joint


Hooke’s joint

  • Leakage of refrigerant from a system is detected by halide torch. Here flame turns
    1. Bright green
    2. Red
    3. Yellow
    4. Orange


Bright green

  • Why Involutes Curve used in Gear?

Involute curve is the path traced by a point on a line as the line rolls without slipping on the circumference of a circle. Involute curve has a contact angle between two gears when the tangents of two gears pass through the contact point without friction.

  • What is Bearing stress?

The stress which acts on the contact surface area between two members is known as Bearing stress. An example for this is the stress between nut and the washer.

  • Which is hard material Cast Iron or Mild Steel?

Cast iron.  Due to the excess carbon content than mild steel it is harder. The more carbon content, the more hardness will be. But it reduces the weldability due to this hardness. It is brittle too.

  • What are the materials used for Sliding Wear pad?
  1. Urethane-Coated Base Material Provides Optimum Sliding Surfaces for Maximum Wear Ability

  2. Galvanized Steel for Backing on Head and Side Pads

  3. For crane services, We use Velcro Nylon wearing pad

  • Compressed air is contained in a cylinder at room temperature. It suddenly starts leaking through a hole. The behaviour of the gas is
    1. There is no change in its temperature
    2. It gets cooler
    3. It becomes hotter
    4. It may get cooler or become hotter depending on the humidity in the air


  1. It gets cooler


It is a case of adiabatic expansion. So cooling takes place.

  • What is the difference between a Shaper machine and a Planner machine?

In Shaper machine tool is having reciprocating motion and work piece is clamped on table which is stationary. It is mostly suitable for light duty operation.In Shaping large cutting force is transferred to tool.

In Planer machine tool is having stationary and work piece is clamped on table which is reciprocating motion. It is mostly suitable for Heavy duty operation. In planner large cutting force is transferred to table.

  • Discharge of exhaust gases through chimney will be maximum when
    1. Chimney is very tall
    2. Outside temperature is much lower than the hot gas temperature
    3. Height of the chimney is equal to the half the height of the equivalent column of air
    4. When the temperature of exhaust gases is lowest


Height of the chimney is equal to the half the height of the equivalent column of air

  • How will you calculate the tonnage of Mechanical Press?

F = S x L x T divided by 1000

F = Force in kilo Newton’s

S = shear stress of material in MPa

L = the total length of peripheries being cut/sheared in mm

T = thickness of material in mm