Solar Thermal Power | Solar Energy | Solar Power | Produce Electricity From Solar Heat

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The principles of solar thermal power conversion have been known for more than a century; its commercial scale-up and exploitation, however, has only taken place since the mid 1980s. With these first large-scale 30-80 MW parabolic trough power stations, built in the California Mojave desert, the technology has impressively demonstrated its technological and economic promise. With few adverse environmental impacts and a massive resource, the sun, it offers an opportunity to the countries in the sun belt of the world comparable to that currently being offered by offshore wind farms to European and other nations with the windiest shorelines.

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Solar thermal power can only use direct sunlight, called ‘beam radiation’ or Direct Normal Irradiation (DNI), i.e. that fraction of sunlight which is not deviated by clouds, fumes or dust in the atmosphere and that reaches the earth’s surface in parallel beams for concentration. Hence, it must be sited in regions with high direct solar radiation. Suitable sites should receive at least 2,000 kilowatt hours (kWh) of sunlight radiation per m2 annually, whilst best site locations receive more than 2,800 kWh/m2/year.

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In many regions of the world, one square kilometer of land is enough to generate as much as 100-130 Giga watt hours (GWh) of solar electricity per year using solar thermal technology. This is equivalent to the annual production of a 50 MW conventional coal- or gas-fired mid-load power plants. Over the total life cycle of a solar thermal power system, its output would be equivalent to the energy contained in more than    5 million barrels of oil2).

 

TURNING SOLAR HEAT INTO ELECTRICITY

 

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Producing electricity from the energy in the sun’s rays is a straightforward process: direct solar radiation can be concentrated and collected by a range of Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) technologies to provide medium- to high temperature heat.

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This heat is then used to operate a conventional power cycle, for example through a steam turbine or a Stirling engine. Solar heat collected during the day can also be stored in liquid or solid media such as molten salts, ceramics, concrete or, in the future, phase-changing salt mixtures. At night, it can be extracted from the storage medium thereby continuing turbine operation.

Mechatronics Interview Questions And Answers

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  • How failure of Knuckle Pin occurs?

The most common mode of failure is overloading. Operating forces of the application produce loads that exceed the clamp load and the joint works itself loose, or fails catastrophically. It occur due to shear forces and twisting moment.

  • In a fillet weld the weakest section is the
    1. Smaller side of the fillet
    2. Throat of the fillet
    3. Side perpendicular to force
    4. Side parallel to force

Answer:

Throat of the fillet

  • An automobile vehicle heats up while lying in a parking lot on a sunny day. The process can be assumed to be
    1. Isothermal
    2. Isobaric
    3. Isometric
    4. Isentrophic

Answer:

Isobaric

  • What is the Expansion of SCADA, DCS & HMI?

SCADA- Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition

DCS- Distribution Control System and

HMI – Human Machine Interface

  • Method for Testing Light Emitting Diode ( LED )?

Give forward Bias voltage to the LED’s pin by using Multi meter,if it is ok then it will glow up or remains in off state.

  • What is principal work of “O ring”?

O rings are fitted to form a leak proof joints between two mating surfaces. O ring is like a Gasket which is made by rubber to protect the leakage of gas or vapour in-between two metal products.

  • What is the difference between Relay and Contactor?

Purpose of a relay is to protect a device or a circuit. Whereas purpose of a contactor is to make and break the circuit thereby extracting the required signals from their auxiliary contacts.

  • How to make various operations by Pressing a single push button
    (at least for 2 operation) ?

It is simple by using contactors and auxiliary relays to do the operation. BMS (Building Management System ) and PLC (Programmable Logic Controller) are the latest versions but comparatively expensive.

  • What is the Difference Between SCADA and BMS?

SCADA is a control and data acquisition interface software, installed on computers (often PCs) and used with industrial automation controls (PLCs). They are generally developed by automation product manufacturers, (Rockwell, Siemens, Invensys, by some independents) (often bought by larger automation industries, look at wonder ware, Citect, In-touch), and sometimes by individuals who like their own interfaces in Visual C, Delphi… Communications are carried out over specialized buses such as Modbus, Profibus, Fieldbus, Industrial Ethernet… and the sensors, drives, motor controllers are designed to exchange with the PLCs over such links.

Building Management Systems are a parallel industry; components are different, manufacturers are HVAC and lighting industrials (Carrier, Trane, Honeywell) and standards are different. They use different communication protocols (BACNET, EIB, Lon Works) and different standards. Generally, industrial standards will use more power, control higher voltages, and use smaller gauge wire than building automation.

  • How to control Temperature (Electronics way)?

We can use 1 RTD ( Resistance Temperature Detector ) for temperature detection.  When temperature change, resistance also changes in RTD. This RTD input can be given to a PLC and from the output of the PLC a valve can be controlled based on RTD input. This valve can in turn control the temperature of a container by the valve ON/OFF operation.