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What is D4D Technology used in Toyota Vigo?

D-4D is widely recognized as one of the most advanced diesel technologies on the market today. Diesel engines relied on relatively simple technology with a low-pressure mechanical injector delivering fuel to a pre-combustion chamber in the cylinder head where a single ignition – fired by the intense heat of high compression – takes place.

Explain about Powder Technology?

Powder technology is one of the ways of making bearing material. In this method metals like bronze, Al, Fe are mixed and compressed to make an alloy.

Why The fins at the top of a motor cycle engine cylinder are longer than those at the bottom of the cylinder because (Choose the right one)

  1. Hot air rises
  2. The top is the hottest part
  3. They are in an unexposed position
  4. Extra strength is required at the top


2. The top is the hottest part


Bigger the surface area more the heat dissipation rate.

What is DTSi Technology?

DTSI stands for Digital Twin Spark Plug Ignition. The vehicles with DTSI Technology use 2 spark plugs which are controlled by digital circuit. It results in efficient combustion of air fuel mixture.

  • Digital – Since the spark generation will be initiated by a microchip.
  • Twin Since two spark plugs will be used.
  • Spark ignition – Since the ignition will be done via a spark.

What is ATFT Technology used in Honda Hunk?

ATFT means Advance Tumble Flow Induction Technology,
Tumble flow means swirling. In this technology fuel air mixture from the carburator into the engine cylinder with a swirl action. The advantage being one gets a more efficient burning of fuel hence more power and better fuel economy with lesser emissions.

Why we do not use same technology to start both SI /CI engine

The S.I. or spark ignition engine uses petrol as a fuel and the C.I. or compression ignition engine uses diesel as a fuel. Both the fuels has different compression ratio.

In SI engine the compression ratio is 8-12:1.
In CI engine the compression ratio is 16-22:1.

So incase of SI engine, the compression ratio is not sufficient for fuel to burn so a spark plug is used, whereas in ci engine, the compression ratio is so high that due to its internal heat the fuel is combusted so there is no need for a spark plug. so the technology used in si engine is different from CI engine.

What VVTi written on new cars of Toyota stands for?

VVTi : Variable Valve Timing with Intelligence. It is the advanced version of the VVT engine. It changes the cam shaft position by using oil pressure. It is similar to CVVT in Hyundai.

What is PGM FI technology used in Honda Stunner Bike?

The development of an ECU-integrated throttle body module for an electronic fuel injection system for small motorcycles.
Honda has a goal to reduce the total emissions of HC (hydro-carbon) from new vehicles to approximately 1/3 and to further improve the average fuel economy by approximately 30 (both from 1995) by the year 2005. To realize the goal we at Asaka R&D Center considered that the small motorcycles used in many countries in the world should be improved further for clean exhaust gas and low fuel consumption. Accordingly we have started development of the PGM-FI system for small motorcycles with engines of 125cc or smaller including air-cooled engines.
To ensure clean exhaust gas and high fuel economy the control of combustion through an accurate fuel supply is a must. As the conventional FI system (electronic fuel injection system) applied to motorcycles is bulky and costly its application has been mostly in large motorcycles using multi-cylinder engines. In the newly developed PGM-FI in order to apply to small displacement models the obstacles have been eliminated by fully using Honda’s techniques to down-size components as well as making maximum use of the FI techniques attained from the large motorcycles. The compact PGM-FI offers new benefits such as the reduction of released environmentally detrimental substances and the improvement of drivability economy etc.

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  • Explain the Second Law of Thermodynamics.
    The entropy of the universe increases over time and moves towards a maximum value.


  • How do you measure temperature in a Wet Bulb Thermometer?
    Wet bulb temperature is measured in a wet bulb thermometer by covering the bulb with a wick and wetting it with water. It corresponds to the dew point temperature and relative humidity.


  • Which of the following is more close to a black body
  1. Blackboard paint
  2. Green leaves
  3. Black holes
  4. Red holes


  1. Black board paint


  • What is Bending moment?
    When a moment is applied to bend an element, a bending moment exists in the element


  • What are the points in the Stress Strain curve for Steel?
    Proportional limit, elastic limit or yield point, ultimate stress and stress at failure.


  • Define Reynolds number.
    Reynolds number is the ratio of inertial force and viscous force. It is a dimensionless number. It determines the type of fluid flow.


  • What is a Newtonian fluid?
    A Newtonian fluid possesses a linear stress strain relationship curve and it passes through the origin. The fluid properties of a Newtonian fluid do not change when any force acts upon it.


  • How many Joules is 1 BTU?
    1 BTU is equal to 1055.056 joules.


  • What is PS?
    PS is Pferdestarke, the German unit for Horsepower.


  • Explain Otto cycle.
    Otto cycle can be explained by a pressure volume relationship diagram. It shows the functioning cycle of a four stroke engine. The cycle starts with an intake stroke, closing the intake and moving to the compression stroke, starting of combustion, power stroke, heat exchange stroke where heat is rejected and the exhaust stroke. It was designed by Nicolas Otto, a German engineer.


  • By higher octane number of Spark ignition fuel, it is meant that the fuel has
  1. Higher heating value
  2. Higher flash point
  3. Lower volatility
  4. Longer ignition delayAnswer:Longer ignition delay


  • Explain the nomenclature of a 6203-ZZ bearing.
    6 is the type code, which shows it is a single-row ball bearing, 2 is the series, means light, 03 is the bore, which is 17 mm and ZZ is the suffix meaning double shielded bearing.


  • What is Gear ratio?
    It is the ratio of the number of revolutions of the pinion gear to one revolution of the idler gear.


  • What is Annealing?
    It is a process of heating a material above the re-crystallization temperature and cooling after a specific time interval. This increases the hardness and strength if the material.


  • Define Torque.
    Torque is defined as a force applied to an object that results in rotational motion.


  • What is Ductile-Brittle Transition Temperature?
    It is the temperature below which the tendency of a material to fracture increases rather than forming. Below this temperature the material loses its ductility. It is also called Nil Ductility Temperature.