01-wind-energy-renewable-energy-non-conventioanl-energy

Conventional and Non-Conventional Sources of Energy | Why Are Non Conventional Sources of Energy Important?

INTRODUCTION TO ENERGY

Energy is the capacity for doing work, generating heat and emitting light. It is measured as the total amount of work that the body can do. Energy is measured in units of caloric and joule. A kilo-calorie is the amount of energy or heat required to raise the temperature of 1 kg of water from 14.5°C to 15.5°C. The joule is defined as the amount of energy exerted when a force of one newton is applied over a displacement of one meter.

01-sources of energy - conventional energy - non conventional energy

Energy is a basic concept in all science and engineering discipline. A very important principle is that energy is a conserved quantity, I.e., the total amount of energy in the universe is constant. As per the law of conservation of energy “Energy cannot be newly created. Energy cannot be destroyed. In a closed system, the total mass and energy remains unchanged. In a closed system, the energy is conserved. Energy is neither created not destroyed but converted or redistributed from one form to another such as from the wind energy into electrical energy or from chemical energy into heat etc.

CLASSIFICATION OF ENERGY SOURCES

(a) Based on nature of availability of energy:

On the basis of nature of availability of energy source, the energy can be classified as follows:

(I) Primary resources

Primary energy sources can be defined as sources which are either found or stored in nature. These energy sources provide a net supply of energy. Examples: Coal, natural gas, oil, biomass, solar, tidal, hydro and nuclear energy.

(ii) Secondary resources

Secondary sources of energy are derived from the primary energy sources. Producing electrical energy from coal and hydrogen from hydrolysis of water are examples of this type of energy.

(b) Based on utilisation of energy: .

On the basis of utilisation of energy, the energy can be classified as follows:

(I) Direct source of energy

The direct sources of energy are obtained directly from the resources such as human labour, bullocks, and stationary and mobile mechanical or electric power units such as diesel engines, electric motor, power tiller and tractors.

(ii) Indirect sources of energy

The indirect sources of energy do not release energy directly but release it by conversion process. Some energy is invested in producing indirect sources of energy, Seeds, manures (farm yard and poultry), chemicals, fertilizers and machinery can be classified under indirect sources of energy. Again, on the basis of their replenishment, it can be further classified into renewable and non-renewable indirect source of energy.

(iii) Supplementary sources of energy

Supplementary sources are defined as the energy sources whose net energy yield is zero. Those energy sources requiring highest investment in terms of energy insulation (thermal) is an example for this source.

(c) Based on traditional use:

On the basis of traditional use of energy source, the energy can be classified as follows:

(I) Conventional energy

Conventional energy source can be defined as a source which are wed traditionally and provides a net supply of energy. Examples: Thermal energy and hydro power energy,

(ii) New or Non-conventional energy

New or non-conventional energy sources are developed in recent past and produce no net energy. Though it may be necessary for the economy, they may not yield net energy. Examples of non-conventional energy sources are: solar energy, wind energy, tidal energy and biomass energy.

(d) Based on long term availability:

On the basis of long term availability of energy source, the energy can be classified as follows:

(I) Non-renewable energy sources

These are the energy sources that are derived from finite and static stocks of energy. Coal, oil, fossil fuels and nuclear fuels are example of conventional sources of energy. It cannot be produced, grown, generated or used on a scale which can sustain its consumption rate. These resources often exist in a fixed amount and are consumed much faster than nature can create them. The supply of these fuels is limited. It becomes very essential to use these fuels sparingly.

(ii) Renewable energy sources

In this category, the energy sources which are direct in nature but can be subsequently replenished are grouped. The energies which may fall in this group are solar energy, wind energy, tidal energy, biomass energy, etc.

(e) Based on origin:

On the basis of origin of energy source, the energy can be classified as follows:

(I) Fossil fuels energy –

Energy obtained from fossil fuels such as coal, oil, natural gas etc.01-fossil fuels - non renewable energy - conventional power sources

(ii) Nuclear energy –

Energy obtained from nuclear fuels such as Uranium, Plutonium, and Thorium etc.01-nuclear energy - conventional energy

(iii) Hydro energy –

Energy obtained from water.

01-hydal energy - hydro power energy - water power

(iv) Solar energy –

Energy obtained from solar radiation.01-solar energy - renewable energy - non conventional energy

(v) Wind energy –

Energy obtained from natural wind force.01-wind energy - renewable energy - non conventioanl energy

(vi) Tidal energy –

Energy obtained from tides and waves.01-tidal energy - non conventional energy

(vii) Biomass energy –

Energy obtained from biomass fuels such as cow dung, vegetable waste etc.01-biomass energy - non renewable energy

(viii) Geothermal energy –

Energy obtained from natural temperature variation of present in the various depth of the earth.01-geothermal energy- non conventional sources of energy

(ix) Ocean thermal energy –

Energy obtained from natural temperature variation present in the various depth of the ocean.

01-wave energy - renewable energy

MECHANICAL TESTING | Mechanical Testing of Materials | Mechanical Testing of Metals | Mechanical Testing of Welds | Mechanical Testing Facilities | Load & Tensile Test | Mechanical Testing Machine

Various tests:

Tensile Test:

A tensile test, also known as a tension test, tests a material’s strength. It’s a mechanical test where a pulling force is applied to a material from both sides until the sample changes its shape or breaks. It’s is a common and important test that provides a variety of information about the material being tested, including the elongation, yield point, tensile strength, and ultimate strength of the material. Tensile tests are commonly performed on substances such as metals, plastics, wood, and ceramics.

01-Electronic_Tensile_Testing_Machine-calculate tensile strength-yield strength-ultimate strength-break value-elongation-testing steels, iron, plastics and composite materials

Tensile testing systems use a number of different units of measurement. The International System of Units, or SI, recommends the use of either Pascals (Pa) or Newtons per square meter (N/m²) for describing tensile strength. In the United States, many engineers measure tensile strength in kilo-pound per square inch (KSI).

01-TensileStrength-tensile test-Calculate Ultimate tensile strength-tensile property testing of plastics, steel, iron-material strength calculate - pascals - newton per square meter

  • Tensile test with electronic extensometer

01-electronic_extensometer-calculate proof stress - youngs modulus values-material stress-acccepts load-extension value

This instrument is to be used on Tensile or Universal testing machines to find out Proof stress & Young’s modulus values. In case of many brittle materials such as high carbon steels, alloy steels, light aluminium & magnesium alloys, it is difficult to get yield values. For such materials stress corresponding to a certain allowable amount of plastic deformation is termed as proof stress say 0.1% or 0.2% proof stress. The measuring range is up to 5mm & resolution is 0.001mm.

01-mechanical_extensometer-tensile test calculation-universal testing machine-utm

  • Tensile testing at elevated temperature.

01-tensile test at elevated temperature-high temperature tensile test-specialist tensile test

High temperature tensile testing is a procedure to test the properties of a material at above room temperature. It will determine the following parameters:

  • Tensile strength (breaking strength)
  • Yield strength
  • Elongation
  • Reduction of area

Specialist testing, measurement and control equipment is required to perform this test.
The results of such a test will provide a good indication of the static load bearing capacity of the material and therefore establishes the suitability of a material for its intended purpose.

  • Tensile test on Tor steel Bars

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TOR steel is one of the best grade of steel used in concrete reinforced. It’s a kind of high adherence steel. Other types of steel are used for less resistance concrete. Thermo mechanically Treated (TMT) bars are a type of corrosion resistant steel reinforcing bar used in concrete construction.

  • Bend test on plates

01-bend test on steels- cold bars -cold bend testing for steels

A bend test is used to determine whether a specific piece of metal in question will break or fracture under pressure. This is important in the construction of any project using metal, otherwise the building or the item being made could collapse from the immense pressure exerted on it. Every piece of metal made cannot be tested, therefore certain pieces are tested and if they pass, the other pieces are made using the same process. The results of a bend test are reported differently depending on the type of material tested. There is no standard method for reporting the durability that applies to all materials, rather each group has its own set by which it is judged and compared to other metals in that group.

The bend test is essentially measuring a metal’s ductility. Ductility defines how easily a metal can bend without breaking. The higher the ductility of a metal, the more it can bend without breaking or becoming deformed from its original shape. This is important because certain metals must handle pressure without snapping yet still be ductile enough to bend slightly and not lose their support or shape. Copper and steel are two metals that have a high ductility and do well under pressure.

  • Bend test on pipes

01-bend test on pipes

Bending tests are carried out to ensure that a metal has sufficient ductility to stand bending without fracturing. A standard specimen is bent through a specified arc and in the case of strip, the direction of grain flow is noted and whether the bend is with or across the grain.

  • Bend Test on Tor steel

01-wire-rods-rebend test on steels

The purpose is to make certain the weld and the base metal are properly fused, and that the weld metal and the heat affected zone (HAZ) have appropriate mechanical properties

  • Re-Bend test on Tor steel

01-wire-rods-rebend test on steelsThe purpose of re-bend test is to measure the effect of strain ageing on steel. Strain ageing has embrittlement effect which takes place after cold deformation by diffusion of nitrogen in steel. Hence, there is limitation stated in some design codes to restrict the nitrogen content of steel to 0.012%.

  • Nick Break Test

01-nick break test-welding-fabrication-on sheets The NICK-BREAK TEST is useful for determining the internal quality of the weld metal. This test reveals various internal defects (if present), such as slag inclusions,  gas  pockets,  lack of  fusion,  and  oxidized  or burned metal. To accomplish the nick-break test for checking a butt weld, you must first flame-cut the test specimens from a sample weld.

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