FAILURE ANALYSIS | CORROSION ANALYSIS | ROOT CAUSE FAILURE ANALYSIS

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• Why ?

As the standards of our industry rise due to increasing globalization and competition, there is an ever growing need for consistency and reliability. Breakdown of any unit, system or equipment is an avoidable and costly occurrence and must be prevented or minimized. Analysis of such failures becomes a resourceful and affordable tool in addressing such unwanted occurrences.

To establish whether the cause of component failure lay on:

a) Service conditions
b) Design considerations
c) Material and its specification
d) Improper processing and assembly procedures or
e)  Combinations of these.

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Only the real “Root cause” can ensure the effectiveness of corrective and preventive actions and avoid recurrence of failure.

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• Stages Of Failure Analysis

1. Understanding and assimilation of background data and selection of samples.
2. Examination and documentation of the failed part by the following

1. Visual examination of parts, location (if necessary) and relevant photographs as well.

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2.  Non destructive testing by means of Radiography, Dye      penetrant, Magnetic particle testing etc.

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3. Mechanical Testing for various physical properties.

3. Vital specimens are selected, classified, and subjected to:

  1. Macroscopic examination and analysis. This involves examining the fracture surfaces, secondary cracks, deposits and other such elements
  2. Microscopic examination and analysis of fracture surface (by Scanning Electron Microscopy, if required).

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4. Chemical analysis of material for conformation to specifications.

5. Chemical analysis of corrosion products, deposits, contaminants etc.

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6. The actual state of the failed part and the failure mode are established.

7.  Fracture mechanics study if found necessary.

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8. A simulation of the identical working environment to determine if any external      factors have contributed to the failure

9. Conclusions are determined after compiling all evidences and analysis and       then the report is generated.
10. Follow-up recommendations are also provided.

 

 

 

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What Are CAD Drawings | 2D Design | 3D Design |Modeling | Drafting | By CAD Software’s like Pro-e, AutoCAD, Solidworks, CATIA, Unigraphics etc

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Computer-aided design (CAD) is a process that allows computer users to design a variety of products and geometric shapes on-screen, rather than building them by hand. Using CAD software, one can create and modify an object to determine how it will appear and function after it is built. CAD drawings often include a computer-generated image of the design, as well as its dimensions, processes, and materials. CAD drawings may be either two dimensional (2D) or three-dimensional (3D). When an object is drawn in 3D using CAD, the process is often referred to as rendering or modeling, while 2D design is often called “drafting.”

CAD drawings are used in a large number number of industrial and manufacturing applications. This technology is widely utilized in art and graphic design, and gives these artists a greater level of design flexibility than that of other mediums. CAD drawings are also used in automotive and aerospace design, as well as in the development of industrial products and equipment. Many special effects used in films and television rely on computer animation generated with CAD software. Finally, CAD drawings are a critical component of the construction and engineering trades.

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Before the invention of CAD, products and building plans were drawn by hand. This was a laborious and time-intensive process that required a high number of draftsmen, as well as frequent revisions. With the introduction of CAD software, engineers and designers were able to quickly and easily generate and modify drawings. Design firms could hire fewer staff, and both design and product development cycles were greatly reduced. CAD software also allowed engineers and designers to generate their own drawings, rather than to attempt to explain them to a draftsman, resulting in more accurate design.

Though CAD drawings have been in use since the 1960s, it wasn’t until the late 1980s and early 1990s that CAD software became a cost-effective option for many industries. Early versions of the software relied on 2D vector design, while modern CAD drawings include 3D modeling capabilities. Today’s modeling software allows designers to not only draw an object, but to rotate it on an axis, and to see through the object’s walls from the inside. This modeling capability is particularly useful in construction and engineering, allowing designers to virtually “walk-through” a structure and explore different angles.

Most CAD software is designed only for Windows or Linux operating systems. Complex CAD drawings may require advanced graphics cards and high levels of random access memory (RAM), but simpler drawings can be done on almost any basic computer. CAD software is operated using a traditional mouse, though some professional designers may supplement this operation using a digital pen or drawing tablet.

 

 

 

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