Plastics | Utility Of Plastics | Engineering Plastics

Plastics are excellent materials with unique and very useful properties. You can produce just about anything you can imagine using plastics.

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Characteristics of Plastics

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History Of Plastics:

1. Before Plastics—Age of the Natural Resins

  • Rubber—Tough elastic substance (light cream or dark amber
    colored) from the milky juice (sap) of rubber tree
  • Ebonite—Hard black rubber; natural rubber + sulfur
  • Gutta-Percha—Dark brown substance like natural rubber
  • Shellac—dark-brown material from lac insects

2. Bakelite—The First True Synthetic Plastics

  • Leo Hendrik Baekeland invented Bakelite from coal
  • Bakelite helped make 20th century “The Age of Electricity”

01-Reaction to produce plastics-plastic formation-industrial plastic manufacturing-plastic production methods3. Industrialization of Major Plastics

Year

Type of plastics

Note

1872

Celluloid (Hyatt, USA)

Semi-synthetic

1910

Phenolic resin, “Bakelite” (Baekeland, USA)

From coal

1931

Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) (Rohm and Haas, Ger-many)

From coal

1935

Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) (IG Farben, Germany)

From coal

1935

Polystyrene (IG Farben, Germany)

From oil

1938

Nylon 6 (IG Farben, Germany)

 

1939

Nylon 66 (DuPont, USA)

From coal

1939

High-pressure low-density polyethylene (LDPE) (ICI, Eng-land)

 

1953

Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) (DuPont, USA)

 

1953

Low-pressure high-density polyethylene (HDPE) (Montecatini, Italy)

Ziegler catalyst

1955

Medium-pressure high-density polyethylene (HDPE) (Phillips, USA)

Phillips catalyst

1957

Low-pressure high-density polyethylene (HDPE) (Hoechst, Germany)

Ziegler catalyst

1959

Polypropylene (Montecatini, Italy)

 

1977

Linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE) (UCC, USA)

 

1991

Metallocene very-low-density polyethylene (VLDPE) (Exxon, USA)

Metallocene cata-lyst

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4. Concept of High Molecular Weight Compounds & Polymers

  • Herman Staudinger, German chemist, proposed a new theory that several thousands of reactive units bonded together in chains and form giant molecules to make up cellulose and rubber
  • In 1920, Staudinger proposed calling such materials: high molecular weight compounds, macromolecules, or polymers.

5. Nylon—The First Tailor-Made Plastics

  • 1931 – Fiber 66 was produced, later called Nylon 66 in 1938
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