Robot grippers are essential components in automation systems, enabling robots to interact with objects and tools effectively. They serve various functions depending on the specific application and can be found in different types of robots and automation setups. Here’s a summary of the key points you mentioned:
Functions of Robot Grippers:
- Ensuring precise positioning and orientation of workpieces relative to the gripper and handling equipment.
- Retaining static and dynamic forces and moments specific to the task or process.
- Changing the position and orientation of objects using wrist axis or other means.
- Performing specific technical operations or tasks as required.
Applications of Robot Grippers:
- Industrial robots: Used for handling and manipulating objects in manufacturing and logistics.
- Hard automation: Used for tasks like assembly, micro-assembly, machining, and packaging.
- NC machines and special purpose machines: Employed for tool changing in machining processes.
- Hand-guided manipulators: Used in applications like medical, aerospace, and nautical settings for remote object manipulation.
- Rope and chain lifting tools: Work in conjunction with load-carrying equipment.
- Service robots: Serve as prehension tools, potentially resembling prosthetic hands.
Robot Gripper Types:
- Miniaturized grippers: Developed for delicate components in microtechnology applications.
- Number of fingers: Grippers can have any number of fingers, with two-fingered grippers commonly used in industrial robots for pick-and-place operations.
- Multifingered grippers: More versatile and are used in applications where dexterity is crucial, such as humanoid robots with 6 degrees of freedom.
Research and Development in Multifingered Robot Grippers:
- Ongoing research focuses on the development of multifingered grippers to enhance robot dexterity.
- Desired characteristics include anthropomorphism and dexterity, enabling the handling of a wide range of objects.
- Multifingered hands have multiple jointed fingers with high degrees of freedom.
Robot Hand Design Issues:
- Various research areas include finger material selection, finger configuration, size, stress analysis, kinematic modeling, actuator placement, dynamics analysis, grasp manipulation, tactile sensing, and control.
- Material selection for finger development.
- Finger configuration and geometry.
- Determination of finger diameter and length.
- Stress analysis of fingers.
- Development of kinematic models and joint variable determination.
- Actuator selection and placement.
- Dynamic analysis to determine parameters like velocity, acceleration, and torque in each joint.
- Grasp manipulation techniques.
- Optimization of contact forces and tactile sensing.
- Control strategies for robot hands.
Applications of Mechanical Hands:
- Mechanical hands find use in a variety of applications, including remote manipulations in space, nuclear, and undersea exploration, as well as prosthetics.
- They can be designed for simple grasping tasks, manipulation, finishing, assembly, and assisting elderly and disabled individuals in household applications.
Applications of Robot Hands:
- Mechanical hands find use in remote manipulations in space, nuclear, and undersea exploration.
- They are also used in prosthetics.
- Applications range from simple object grasping to more complex manipulation, finishing, and assembly operations.
- Some hands are designed for household applications to assist elderly and disabled individuals.
Research Assumptions in Robot Grippers:
- Many research studies have been conducted with specific assumptions related to the number of fingers, contact quality, object complexity, sensory information, and other factors.
- These studies typically focus on static grasping using fingers with localized contact points and may not consider the palm’s role in manipulation.
Robot grippers play a crucial role in enabling automation and robotics to perform a wide range of tasks efficiently, from manufacturing to healthcare and beyond. Researchers continue to work on improving gripper design and capabilities to meet the demands of various industries and applications.