Self Driving Car Technology
An autonomous vehicle (Self Driving Car Technology) is fundamentally defined as a passenger vehicle that drives by itself. An autonomous vehicle is also referred to as an autopilot, driverless car, auto-drive car, or automated guided vehicle.
In the future, automated driving systems will help to avoid accidents and reduce congestion. Future autonomous vehicle technology will be capable of determining the best route and warning each other about the conditions ahead.
Google has been working on its self driving car technology, where the user is required to enter an address in Google Maps, after which the system gathers information from Google Street View and combines it with artificial intelligence software.
The neural network software includes information from video cameras in the car. A LIDAR sensor on top of the autonomous vehicle technology, radar sensors in the front, and a position sensor attached to one of the rear wheels that helps locate the car’s position on a map. These sensors aid the car in maintaining a distance from surrounding vehicles or objects.
Autonomous Car Driving
Autonomous car driving refers to the use of technology to drive a vehicle without human intervention. This technology includes sensors that collect information about the environment around the vehicle and computers that interpret the data and make decisions. These decisions may then be relayed back to the human driver via displays or voice commands.
Self-driving cars are fully automated vehicles that require no human input. Instead, they rely on sensors that gather information about their surroundings and software algorithms that control everything from acceleration to steering.
Future mobility describes how we will move around cities and towns in the near future. As our population continues to increase, traffic congestion gets worse and accidents become more frequent. To combat these issues, many experts believe that autonomous vehicles will play a major role in combating these issues.
Urban transport describes the movement of people and goods within cities. Many experts believe that autonomous vehicles could help solve some of the problems associated with urban transport today.
Traffic congestion occurs when roads are filled with vehicles and not enough space exists to accommodate everyone. Experts say that autonomous vehicles would reduce traffic congestion by eliminating the need for humans to take control of the wheel.
Safety is a top priority for any vehicle manufacturer and it’s the main accomplishment for automotive engineers. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), public road accidents cause approximately 1.35 million deaths each year. Autonomous vehicles have the potential to significantly improve safety and they will read the traffic lights, and road signs to achieve the safety of the self-driving car derived by WHO.
Types of Self Driving Cars
There are many different types of self driving cars, including:
a) Autonomous Vehicles
b) Driverless car
c) Semi-Autonomous Vehicles
d) Smart Cars
h) Diesel Vehicles
i) Electric/Hybrid Vehicles
The Challenges of Self Driving Cars Technology
- A self-driving car is a vehicle that drives itself without human intervention.
- There are two types of self-driving cars: autonomous vehicles and semi-autonomous vehicles. Autonomous vehicles have no steering wheel, brake pedal, accelerator pedal, or any other type of control mechanism. Semi-autonomous vehicles require some level of human driver interaction.
- Self driving cars use sensors to detect their environment. These sensors may include cameras, radars, lasers, GPS systems, and computer vision algorithms.
- Self driving cars rely on software programs to make decisions about how best to navigate the roadways.
- Self driving cars are still in the research phase. However, many companies are working hard to develop them.
- Self driving cars could potentially eliminate traffic accidents caused by human error.
- Self driving cars will likely become commonplace in the future.
- Self driving cars were first developed in the 1980s.
- In the United States, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) regulates the testing and sale of self-driving cars.
- Google’s self-driving car was involved in a fatal accident in May 2016.
- Tesla Motors’ autopilot feature was involved in fatal crashes in March 2018.
- Uber’s self-driving car program was suspended after a fatal accident in Arizona in April 2018.
- Waymo, Alphabet’s self-driving car company, is currently suing Uber over trade secrets.
- Ford Motor Company plans to release its own self-driving car by 2021.
- A self-driving car is able to operate without any external help. It uses sensors to perceive its environment and communicate with other vehicles or infrastructure. Sensors may include radar, laser rangefinders, cameras, GPS devices, and others. Communication can be done using wireless technology (e.g., Wi-Fi) or wired connections (e.g., 4G).
- One of the biggest challenges for self-driving cars is perception. Perception involves processing sensory data and understanding the world around us. Without proper perception, a vehicle cannot function properly. To solve this problem, engineers use computer vision techniques. Computer vision deals with how computers understand images. There are two types of computer vision: 2D and 3D.
- 2D computer vision analyzes 2D images. These images are captured by cameras and processed by algorithms to recognize objects and their positions. An example of this is Google Street View.
- 3D computer vision analyzes 3D images. These images can be captured by LIDAR, RADAR, sonar, etc. LIDAR stands for Light Detection And Ranging. It works by sending out a pulse of light and measuring the reflected pulses. RADAR stands for Radio Detection And Ranging. Similar to LIDAR, it sends out radio waves and measures the reflected waves. Sonar stands for Sound Navigation And Ranging. It operates similarly to RADAR, except it uses sound instead of radio waves.
- Another challenge for self-driving cars are communication. Communication includes both wired and wireless technologies. Wired communication means connecting vehicles using cables. Wireless communication means connecting vehicles using radio waves.
- Finally, the last major challenge for self-driving vehicles is localization. Localization refers to determining where a vehicle is located in space. This is necessary to determine where a vehicle should go.
- All these challenges are being addressed by companies like Waymo, General Motors GM Cruise, Zoox, Nuro, Tesla car, and many others. Companies are investing billions of dollars to develop self-driving cars.
- We believe that self-driving cars will change the way we live. People won’t own cars anymore. Instead, they’ll order a ride using a mobile app. Ride sharing services will be huge.
- Self-driving cars will reduce accidents caused by drunk drivers. Drunk driving is already illegal in several countries. If self-driving cars are implemented, police officers will no longer need to stop drunk drivers.
- Self-driving cars can improve traffic flow. Traffic jams cost us hours every day. Imagine how much time we can save if we don’t have to sit in traffic anymore.
- Self-driving cars are good for the environment. We know that gas emissions are bad for the environment. Self-driving cars do not produce any gas emissions.
- Self-driving cars have the potential to increase road safety. Currently, over 1 million people die in road accidents worldwide. That number is expected to rise to nearly double by 2030
The control mechanism of an autonomous car (Self Driving Car Technology) consists of three main blocks as shown below:
2. Logic Processing Units
3. Mechanical control systems
-Consists of servo motors and relays.
-Driving wheel control
-Throttle control, etc.
Artificial Intelligence Software for Self Driving Car Technology
Artificial intelligence is the making of intelligent machines, especially intelligent computer programs. It is related to the similar task of using computers to understand human intelligence. This system exhibits human intelligence and behavior, including robots, expert systems, voice recognition, natural language processing, face recognition, handwriting recognition, game intelligence, artificial creativity, and more. With this technology both google Maps and google street view are interrelated.
Google Maps is a Google service offering powerful, user-friendly mapping technology and local business information, including business locations, contact information, and driving directions.
Google Street View:
Google Street View (GSV) has rapidly expanded to provide street-level images of entire cities all around the world. The number and density of geo-positioned images available make this service truly unprecedented. A Street View user can wander through city streets, enabling a wide range of uses such as scouting a neighborhood or finding specific items such as bike racks or mailboxes.
LIDAR Sensor | Self Driving Car Technology
Light Detection And Ranging is an optical remote sensing technology that can measure the distance to, or other properties of a target by illuminating the target with light, often using pulses from a laser. LIDAR uses ultraviolet, visible, or near-infrared light to image objects and can be used with a wide range of targets, including non-metallic objects, rocks, rain, chemical compounds, aerosols, clouds, and even single molecules. A narrow laser beam can be used to map physical features with very high resolution.
This device provides the latitude, longitude, and altitude together with the corresponding standard deviation and the standard NMEA messages with a frequency of 5 Hz. When geostationary satellites providing the GPS drift correction are visible from the car, the unit enters the differential GPS mode (high precision GPS). When no correction signal is available, the device outputs standard precision GPS.
Radar Sensor | Self Driving Car Technology
Radar (Radio Detection and Ranging) is an object-detection system that uses radio waves to determine the range, altitude, direction, or speed of objects. It can be used to detect aircraft, ships, spacecraft, guided missiles, motor vehicles, weather formations, and terrain. The radar dish or antenna transmits pulses of radio waves or microwaves which bounce off any object in their path. The object returns a tiny part of the wave’s energy to a dish or antenna, which is usually located at the same site as the transmitter.
The Future of Self driving Vehicles
1. Autonomous trucks
Trucks are kind of similar to cars. They both require someone behind the wheel to drive them. Trucks are different, though. They actually carry goods from place to place. And we’re going to start seeing driverless vehicle trucks coming soon.
2. Driver-less Buses
Buses aren’t nearly as popular as trains, but they’re slowly starting to replace trains. And once buses start getting driverless vehicles, we might even get rid of bus stops altogether.
3. Driver-less Trains
Trains are pretty similar to buses. They both take people from point A to point B. Trains are faster than buses, but they’ve got one big problem – they’re expensive. If we ever manage to make trains completely driverless vehicles, then we won’t have to pay for train fares anymore.
4. Automated Taxis
Taxi cabs are definitely something we use every day. There’s no way I would ever try to walk anywhere in New York City. That’s why taxis are so useful. They allow us to easily get where we need to go. And someday, we might even get driverless taxis.
5. Fully Automatic Delivery Drones
Drones are already being used to deliver things. So imagine how much easier it will be when they’re fully automated driving systems. No longer will we need to wait around for packages to arrive. Instead, we’ll be able to order whatever we want online and then have it delivered right to our door.
BMW cars: The perfect choice for the future autonomous car
1. BMW iVision Dynamics
The BMW iVision Dynamics concept was unveiled at the 2017 Frankfurt Motor Show. The vehicle is designed to be a fully autonomous system and features a number of technologies, including laser scanners, radar sensors, cameras, LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) sensors, GPS systems, and ultrasonic sensors. The vehicle uses artificial intelligence to make decisions about its surroundings.
2. BMW i8
The BMW i8 is a two-seat sports coupe produced by German automobile manufacturer BMW since 2013. In addition to being the first production electric vehicle from BMW, it is also the company’s first plug-in hybrid model. The name i stands for intelligent, innovation, imagination, individual, inspiration, integrity, and imagination.
3. BMW iNEXT
The BMW iNEXT concept is a futuristic vision of how the automaker imagines the world of mobility in 2030. The concept features a range of advanced driver assistance systems, connectivity, and autonomous driving capabilities.
4. BMW iX3
The BMW iX3 is a compact crossover SUV based on the BMW X3 platform. It was introduced at the 2018 Beijing Auto Show. The name iX3 stands for Intelligent Extra-urban Mobility Concept.
5. BMW iX4
The BMW iX4 is a compact crossover SUV built on the same platform as the BMW iX3. It was unveiled at the 2019 New York International Auto Show.
6. BMW iX6
The BMW iX6 is a long-wheelbase version of the BMW iX3 and BMW iX4. It was unveiled at a press event held in Munich, Germany on December 11, 2019.
7. BMW iX9
The BMW iX9 is a long-wheelbase variant of the BMW iX6. It was unveiled at an event held in London, England on September 20, 2020.