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Ultrasonic Machining Process | Application of Ultrasonic in Industries


The ultrasonic machining process (USM) is a type of precision machining using high-frequency sound waves to cut materials. USM uses ultrasonic vibrations at frequencies greater than 20 kHz to produce a cavitation effect on the surface of the material being worked on. As a result, the material is removed without any physical contact between the tool and the workpiece.

The basic principle behind ultrasonic machining is similar to that of conventional milling processes. However, unlike milling processes, ultrasonic machining does not require a coolant and produces no chips. In addition, it offers many advantages over traditional milling processes, including higher accuracy, faster-cutting speeds, less wear on the tool, and lower cost.

Ultrasonic machined parts have been widely used in various industries, including aerospace, automotive, medical, and electronics.


Ultrasonic waves are used for making holes in very hard materials (eg. glass, diamond). A powerful ultrasonic generator is fitted with a drill bit and used for this purpose. A thin fluidic paste of carborundum powder and water is made to flow between the drill bit and plate in which the hole is to be made.


       Ultrasonic generator causes tool bit to vibrate rapidly and gives momentum to the slurry. The material is removed from the plate by the slurry particles below the drill bit. By this technique a hole is drilled on the hard material.


· Brittle material can also be used for drilling process.

· Final finishing is not required after drilling process.

· It is a noise less operation

· A hole of any shape can be made.

· Low cost operation.


       Some materials change their properties when heated so they cannot be welded by conventional electric or gas welding. In those conditions ultrasonic is used to weld the metal pieces at room temperature. A hammer is attached to a powerful ultrasonic generator. The metallic sheets which are to be welded are placed under the tip of the hammer. This hammer is made to vibrate in a very high frequency.


         As a result of high frequency vibration it presses the two metallic sheets rapidly and the makes the molecule of one meta to collide with the molecule of another metal. This makes the molecule to diffuse. So the metallic sheets are welded without using the heat. This process is also called as cold welding process.


1. It does not require any additional welding material.

2. The process is very safe and fast.

3. No fumes and flames are produced

4. The process is noiseless operation.

5. Its cost is low.


          Metals like Aluminium cannot be directly soldered without usi ng flux. However, it is possible to solder such metals by ultrasonic waves.


           An ultrasonic soldering iron consists of an ultrasonic generator with a tip fixed at the end. The tip is heated individually by an electrical heating element.

         During the working process, the tip of the iron melts the solder on aluminium and the ultrasonic vibrator removes the aluminium oxide layer. Now, the solder gets joined to clear metal without any difficulty.


1. This process does not require any flux.

2. Since the flux is not used, the flame is not produced.

3. It is very safe and fast process

4. It’s cost is less.


        Ultrasonic cleaning setup is shown in the picture. It consists of a transducer attached to the bottom of a tank.


       The object to be washed is immersed in a detergent cleaning solution in the tank. The ultrasonic waves are produced in the fluid by the transducer. Now the bubbles are formed due to cavitation. These bubbles get collapse at a tremendous rate.


      The high energy ultrasonic waves acts on the impurities in the object and removes them from it. Thus, the object is cleaned.


1. It is the cheapest technique for cleaning.

2. The various part of machine, electronic components can be cleaned.

3. The smaller parts can be cleaned in an efficient manner.

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