X-Ray Diffraction | Crystal Structure | Why is XRD Important?

Why is XRD Important?

It’s useful for studying Crystal structure

This method have the details about

  • Grain size (or) Crystal size
  • Orientation of the crystal
  • Cold worked, Distorted and Internally stressed crystals
  • Re-Crystallization
  • Preferred orientation etc

Methods of Examining and Measuring the condition of Crystal Structure

  1. The Laue back reflection method
  2. The Rotating Crystal method
  3. The DeBye- Scherrer (or) Powder method:

The Laue back Reflection method:

It’s applicable to single crystals (or) poly-Crystalline masses.

When a beam of Mono chromatic (i.e. of Single Wavelength) X-Ray is directed as a narrow pencil at a specimen of a metal diffraction takes place at certain of the crystallographic planes.

03-laue method- x-rays sheild

01-laue back reflection- method-X-ray-diffraction

01-electron-waves-travel-x-rays03-LaueBack reflection


The Rotating Crystal method:

It’s a useful method for determining angles and positions of planes.

Crystallographic planes are brought in to reflecting positions by rotating a crystal (Specimen) about one of it’s axis while simultaneously radially it with a beam of mono chromatic x-Rays.

If crystal orientation planes are known, the angles and directions can be calculated.


05-diffractometer-x ray detector-rotation crystal

The DeBye- Scherrer (or) Powder method:

The narrow pencil of monochromatic X-Rays is diffracted from the powder and recorded by the photographic film as a series of lines of varying armature.

By the Bragg Equation:

nλ=2d Sinθ


λ– Wave length of X-ray

d- Spacing of the atomic planes

θ – Angle of reflection




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