Why is XRD Important?
It’s useful for studying Crystal structure
This method have the details about
- Grain size (or) Crystal size
- Orientation of the crystal
- Cold worked, Distorted and Internally stressed crystals
- Preferred orientation etc
Methods of Examining and Measuring the condition of Crystal Structure
- The Laue back reflection method
- The Rotating Crystal method
- The DeBye- Scherrer (or) Powder method:
The Laue back Reflection method:
It’s applicable to single crystals (or) poly-Crystalline masses.
When a beam of Mono chromatic (i.e. of Single Wavelength) X-Ray is directed as a narrow pencil at a specimen of a metal diffraction takes place at certain of the crystallographic planes.
The Rotating Crystal method:
It’s a useful method for determining angles and positions of planes.
Crystallographic planes are brought in to reflecting positions by rotating a crystal (Specimen) about one of it’s axis while simultaneously radially it with a beam of mono chromatic x-Rays.
If crystal orientation planes are known, the angles and directions can be calculated.
The DeBye- Scherrer (or) Powder method:
The narrow pencil of monochromatic X-Rays is diffracted from the powder and recorded by the photographic film as a series of lines of varying armature.
By the Bragg Equation:
λ– Wave length of X-ray
d- Spacing of the atomic planes
θ – Angle of reflection
- Conveyor Take Up Arrangement | Take Up Pulley | Screw Take Up Conveyor | Quick Take Up Master CylinderConveyor Take-up Arrangement: All belt conveyors require the use of some form of take-up device for the following reasons: To ensure adequate tension of the belt leaving the drive pulley so as to avoid any slippage of the belt To ensure proper belt tension at the loading and other points along the conveyor To compensate...
- Pulley | Belt Conveyor Pulley | Belt Conveyor Pulley Types | Belt Conveyor Power CalculationPulley Belt ConveyorContents1 Pulley Belt Conveyor1.1 Pulley:1.2 Pulley types:1.3 Typical welded steel pulley-Drum conveyor pulley1.4 Spun end curve crown pulley1.5 Spiral drum conveyor pulley1.6 Welded steel pulley with diamond grooved lagging1.7 Welded steel pulley with grooved Lagging1.8 Spiral Wing Conveyor pulley1.9 Power calculation for the drive unit: Pulley: The diameters of standard pulleys are: 200,...
- Types Of Belt Conveyor Drives | Belt Conveyor Drive ArrangementTypes of Belt Conveyor Drives:Contents1 Types of Belt Conveyor Drives:1.1 Single Unsnubbed Bare / Lagged Pulley Drive:1.2 Snubbed Bare / Lagged Pulley Drive:1.3 Tandem drive:1.4 Special Drive: Single Unsnubbed Bare / Lagged pulley Drive Snubbed Bare / Lagged Pulley Drive Tandem Drive Special Drives Single Unsnubbed Bare / Lagged Pulley Drive: This is the simplest...
- Belt Conveyor Drive Arrangement | Belt Conveyor Design CalculationDrive arrangement:Contents1 Drive arrangement:22.214.171.124 T1 ≤ T2.eµα126.96.36.199 Te = T1 – T188.8.131.52 T2min > T E Max (1 / (eµα -1))184.108.40.206 T = 4.2 Pc ( Wb + Wm ) In belt conveyors the driving power is transmitted to the belt by the driving pulley which is rotated by an electric motor. The basic mechanism...
- Belt Conveyor Idlers | Carrying Idlers | Return Idlers | Idler SpacingIdlers:Contents1 Idlers:1.1 Carrying Idlers:1.2 Return idlers:1.3 Idler spacing: Conveyor belts are usually supported on idler rollers. In some cases they are supported by solid wood or runway of steel sheet or a combination support comprising of the two types of supports placed alternatively. There are two basic types of idlers: Carrying idlers Return idlers Carrying...