Future Of Fuel Cells | Hydrogen Production

Future of Hydrogen Fuel cell oil powered cars extract hydrogen from water

Hydrogen Energy is alternative name for Fuel Cell. It’s a future renewable energy technology. Hydrogen (H element) usually called as the perfect fuel. It is a significant reserve on earth (Ex. Water) and it is exhaustible. The utilization of hydrogen is compatible with nature, instead of intrusive. We will never run out of Hydrogen. After all it’s not a primary energy supply like oil and coal. However rather a clean energy carrier like electricity. Hydrogen is attractive because it stored and transported over long distances by pipelines. Whereas power lines are costly to build and engender loss in transmission.

01- Fuel cell oil - Fuel cell stock - hydrogen fuel cell development - latest trends fuel cell development

The commercial production of Hydrogen by atmospheric friendly strategies using solar energy and water with the help of catalysts that are active and sturdy or durable, are being investigated. Systems investigated to use concentrated sunlight to create the heat that required to separate water into hydrogen and oxygen that has the potential for being economically viable. Another type of system uses concentric solar thermal energy to reform natural gas and steam into a mixture of carbon dioxide and hydrogen. The method will increase the energy content of natural gas by twenty percent with embodied solar energy.

Under certain conditions, microscopic green algae produce sufficient solar electricity in summer, use it to provide hydrogen and fuel of future. One plan is to produce sufficient solar electricity in summer, use it to produce hydrogen and oxygen from water by electrolysis, use an equivalent (hydrogen) to produce electricity in a fuel cell in winter and shut the cycle by recycling the water. A self reliant solar energy house (SSSH) has been inbuilt in this manner in Germany. Solar Energy house has produced the energy which has no grid connection.

01- will hydrogen be the fuel of the future - present and future of fuel cells

Fuel Cell Design

Fuel cells are electro chemical devices that combine hydrogen and oxygen, by setting up an electrical charge across a membrane. This design used to produce a steady flow of electricity with no moving parts. A fuel cell system which includes a ‘fuel reformer’ can utilize the hydrogen from any other source like gasoline, natural gas or methanol. Natural gas is more abundant than oil. Natural gases are less heavily exploited so far. Raising the prospect that it will be the dominant energy source this century. It could form a kind of ‘bridge’ to hydrogen till such time as a cheaper renewable source of energy found for splitting water to get hydrogen.

Fuel Cells Their Future

In space program hydrogen used to provide all of the shuttle’s electric power from on-board fuel cells. The fuel cells exhaust pure water used for drinking water by the crew.

The likely immediate application for the fuel cells will be a fuel cell battery combination known as a ‘hybrid’. The hydrogen fuel cell can constantly charge the battery, which is able to run the electrical motor powering the automobile. Fuel cells provides a lot of energy density, or the ability to travel long distances. While batteries provide power density, or the ability to accelerate quickly. A hybrid allows one to have both at the same time.

01-hydrogen fuel cell development - latest trends in fuel cells

Fuel cells hold out great prospects as a conduit through which electricity generated from hydrogen. Thus we have the option of ‘decarburising’ not only fossil fuels but even biogas and ‘sequestering’ the carbon dioxide from the earth.

Displacement And Dimensional Measurements In Metrology | Mechanical Linear Measuring Instruments

Dimensional Measurement techniques

Measurement of length, diameter, height and thickness of an object are commonly needed in connection with the production and assembly of machine parts, and testing of materials, components and structures. Dimensional measurements refer to the determination of the size of the object, while, displacement measurement implies movement of a point from one position to another.

Linear Displacement Measurement Devices

01-list of mechanical measuring instruments - metrology measrements

The limitation of human senses in providing exact quantitative information of a physical variable and phenomenon led to the development of aids or devices called instruments. Instruments can sense and indicate the value of a variable and can also manipulate and control it.

Length measurement standards are available as line comparison standards (e.g., scales and tapes) and as end comparison standards (e.g., gauge blocks, slip gauges).

01-slip gauges - gauge blocks - length measurement standards

The primary error in the above devices is due to thermal expansion or contraction of the scale or of gauge blocks. But, when the gauge block and the work piece are of like materials and are at the same temperature there will be no error in measurement due to temperature.

No measurement can be made with perfect accuracy. An instrument when subjected to the same input repeatedly may not indicate the same output. Response of an instrument, when given an input in an increasing order then in decreasing order, may not be the same. Response of an instrument may change with time and also with changes in environmental conditions.

Dimensional Measuring Instruments

01-mechanical measuring instruments - displacement units of measurement

These devices are generally classified as

  1. low resolution (0.25 mm),
  2. medium resolution (2.5 * 10-3 mm),
  3. high resolution (2.5 * 10-5 mm) and
  4. super resolution devices,

which include various forms of interferometers. Various devices commonly used are:

· Steel Rules

· Vernier caliper’s

· Micrometers

· Dial Gauge

· Indicators

· Gauge Blocks

Non contact Displacement Sensors

In addition to above devices, optical methods used are, microscopes, telescope and optical flats with a monochromatic source of light and working on the principle of interference of light. Pneumatic comparators find frequent industrial applications for dimensional measurements.

Further the measured value of the input used for control purposes. E.g., switching off an oven when a particular temperature is attained. The measured input may sometimes require processing by a computer for a meaningful interpretation. Data processors and controllers may also form a part of the display devices.

There are two types of display devices used for this purposes. One is analog type devices where a relative displacement or movement of a pointer on a scale, or a spot of light on a scale indicates the value of measured variable. The second is the digital type devices where the measured value indicated by digits or directly as a number. Presently wrist watches often have both analog and digital displays.

01-INDUSTRIAL DIMENSIONAL MEASUREMENTS - linear displacement measurement method and apparatus

For choosing a suitable instrument for the measurement of a particular quantity, the starting point is the specification of the performance characteristics required e.g., range, resolution, sensitivity, accuracy etc. Dynamic response characteristics become important when quantity to be measured is time dependent.